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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Perioperative statin medication impairs pulmonary outcome after abdomino-thoracic esophagectomy

Variable All patients Propensity score-matched patients
Statin ( −) patients (n = 91) Statin ( +) patients (n = 26) p value psmStatin ( −) patients (n = 52) psmStatin ( +) patients (n = 26) p value
Type of statin [n] -   - -   -
 Lipophilic
  Simvastatin   19 (73.1%)    19 (73.1%)  
  Atorvastatin   4 (15.4%)    4 (15.4%)  
 Hydrophilic
  Pravastatin   3 (11.5%)    3 (11.5%)  
Male gender [n] 72 (79.1%) 23 (88.5%) 0.3970 39 (75.0%) 23 (88.5%) 0.2371
Age [years] 64.0 (40.0–85.0) 67.5 (53.0–86.0) 0.0224 63.5 (40.0–85.0) 67.5 (53.0–86.0) 0.0536
BMI [kg/m2] 24.2 (15.6–41.3) 25.0 (20.3–37.6) 0.0841 24.1 (16.0–41.3) 25.0 (20.3–37.6) 0.1407
ASA [median] 2 (1–4) 3 (2–4)  < 0.0001 3 (2–4) 3 (2–4) 0.2336
 1 [n] 3 (3.3%) 0   0 0  
 2 [n] 47 (51.6%) 3 (11.5%)   11 (21.2%) 3 (11.5%)  
 3 [n] 39 (42.9%) 21 (80.8%)   39 (75.0%) 21 (80.8%)  
 4 [n] 2 (2.2%) 2 (7.7%)   2 (3.8%) 2 (7.7%)  
History of malignancy [n] 14 (15.4%) 6 (23.1%) 0.3817 10 (19.2%) 6 (23.1%) 0.7690
Abuse [n]
 Alcohol 19 (20.9%) 5 (19.2%) 1 11 (21.2%) 5 (19.2%) 1
 Smoking 33 (36.3%) 12 (46.2%) 0.3709 18 (34.6%) 12 (46.2%) 0.3365
Arterial hypertension [n] 50 (54.9%) 22 (84.6%) 0.0062 34 (65.4%) 22 (84.6%) 0.1093
Coronary artery disease [n] 10 (11.0%) 10 (38.5%) 0.0024 9 (17.3%) 10 (38.5%) 0.0524
Chronic lung disease [n] 17 (20.9%) 10 (38.5%) 0.0617 12 (23.1%) 10 (38.5%) 0.1867
Chronic kidney failure [n] 6 (6.6%) 4 (15.4%) 0.2259 5 (9.6%) 4 (15.4%) 0.4713
Previous abdominal surgery [n] 28 (30.8%) 5 (19.2%) 0.3262 12 (23.1%) 5 (19.2%) 0.7783
Induction therapy [n] 63 (69.2%) 11 (42.3%) 0.0199 36 (69.2%) 11 (42.3%) 0.0285
Indication [n]
 Malignancy    0.9162    1
  Adenocarcinoma 56 (61.5%) 15 (57.7%)   30 (57.7%) 15 (57.7%)  
  SCC 31 (34.1%) 10 (38.5%)   20 (38.5%) 10 (38.5%)  
  Others 4a (4.4%) 1b (3.8%)   2c (3.8%) 1b (3.8%)  
Pathological tumor staged
 T 0 19e (21.6%) 0 0.0084 11e (21.6%) 0 0.0428
 T 1 9 (10.2%) 4 (16.0%)   7 (13.7%) 4 (16.0%)  
 T 2 23 (26.1%) 9 (36.0%)   15 (29.4%) 9 (36.0%)  
 T 3 37 (42.1%) 10 (40.0%)   18 (35.3%) 10 (40.0%)  
 T 4 0 2 (8.0%)   0 2 (8.0%)  
 N 0 53 (58.2%) 13 (50.0%) 0.5055 30 (57.7%) 13 (50.0%) 0.6305
 N + 38 (41.8%) 13 (50.0%)   22 (42.3%) 13 (50.0%)  
 M + f 5 (5.5%) 1 (3.8%) 1 4 (7.7%) 1 (3.8%) 0.6598
  1. Data are given in median and minimum to maximum ranges or n (%).aIncluding one salvage esophagectomy after primary radio-chemo-therapy as well as sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (each n = 1). bI.e., mucosal melanoma. cIncluding one salvage esophagectomy after primary radio-chemo-therapy and one gastrointestinal stromal tumor. dPostoperative pathological “T” stage of primary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus [concerning n = 88 statin ( −) patients or n = 51 psmStatin ( −) patients, respectively, and n = 25 statin ( +) patients], regarding the current UICC classification. eIncluding the one salvage esophagectomy. fOligo-metastatic disease detected intraoperatively in all patients. psm Propensity score matched, BMI Body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologist’s classification of physical health score, SCC Squamous cell carcinoma