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Table 1 Preoperative description of patients submitted to cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) prior to major abdominal surgery and summary of CPET outcomes. SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range

From: The Marsden Morbidity Index: the derivation and validation of a simple risk index scoring system using cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables to predict morbidity in high-risk patients having major cancer surgery

Variable Overall patients (n = 1398)
  Median (range)
Age (years)
 Median (range), (IQR) 68 (21–89), (65–78)
Body mass index (BMI)
 Mean (SD) 27.98 (5.87)
 Median (range), (IQR) 28.0 (12.3–48.4), (24.3–32.0)
Anaerobic threshold (AT)
 Mean (SD) 10.79 (2.01)
 Median (range), (IQR) 10.4 (5.5–19.9), (10.0–12.6)
VO2 max
 Mean (SD) 17.11 (5.74)
 Median (range), (IQR) 15.8 (4.5–37.6), (13.9–18.9)
AT VE/VCO2
 Mean (SD) 35.68 (4.39)
 Median (range), (IQR) 36 (20–48) [32–38],
Oxygen pulse
 Mean (SD) 9.63 (3.00)
 Median (range), (IQR) 9 (2–14) [9–13],
  n(%)
Age group
 ≤ 50 years 164 (12)
 51–70 years 722 (52)
 > 70 years 512 (37)
Gender
 Female 694 (50)
 Male 704 (50)
BMI standard categories
 < 18.5 203 (14)
 18.5–24.99 199 (14)
 ≥ 25.0 996 (71)
Surgery type
 Robotic/laparoscopic 356 (25)
 Open 1,042 (75)
American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score
 ASA 1 22 (2)
 ASA 2 1,076 (77)
 ASA 3 300 (21)
World Health Organisation (WHO) category
 0 735 (53)
 1 565 (40)
 2 53 (4)
 3 43 (3)
 4 2 (0.1)
Arrhythmia
 No 1,246 (89)
 Yes 152 (11)
Documented cirrhosis
 No 1,307 (93)
 Yes 91 (7)
Congestive cardiac failure
 No 1,358 (97)
 Yes 40 (3)
Diabetic status
 Negative 1,034 (74)
 Non-insulin 306 (22)
 Insulin dependent 58 (4)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
 No 862 (62)
 Yes 536 (38)
Previous cardiac event
 No 975 (70)
 Yes 423 (30)
Prior transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke
 No 1,269 (91)
 Yes 129 (9)
Chronic renal impairment
 No 1,147 (82)
 Yes 251 (18)
Number of procedures
 1 782 (56)
 2 154 (11)
 ≥ 3 462 (33)
Cancer stage (TNM classification)
 Primary cancer 1,234 (88)
 Local nodal metastases 140 (10)
 Distant metastases 23 (2)
Surgical categories
 Hepatobiliary 228 (16)
 Urology 340 (24)
 General surgery 330 (24)
 Colorectal/lower gastrointestinal (GI) 118 (8)
 Upper gastrointestinal (GI) 234 (17)
 Gynaecological 138 (10)
 Sarcoma 9 (0.6)