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Table 3 Main and secondary outcomes at 1-year follow-up

From: Effect of goal-directed haemodynamic therapy guided by non-invasive monitoring on perioperative complications in elderly hip fracture patients within an enhanced recovery pathway

  Control (CG)
n=272
Intervention (IG)
n=279
p-value
Intraoperative complications
 Hemodynamic instability 102 (37.5%) 78 (28.0%) 0.017a
 No. of episodes of hemodynamic instabilitye 2 (IQR 1 to 4) 1 (IQR 1 to 2) <0.001b
 Arrhythmias 6 (2.2%) 2 (0.7%) 0.172c
Postoperative complications 123 (45.2%) 118 (42.3%) 0.489a
Cardiovascular 51 (18.8%) 20 (7.2%) <0.001a
  Major 12 (4.4%) 11 (3.9%) 0.783a
   Myocardial infarction 1 (0.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0.494c
   Cardiorespiratory arrest 3 (1.1%) 6 (2.2%) 0.505c
   Acute pulmonary edema 8 (2.9%) 5 (1.8%) 0.374a
   Pulmonary thromboembolism 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) -
   Cardiorespiratory arrest 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) -
  Minor 40 (14.7%) 12 (4.3%) <0.001a
   Haemodynamic instability 34 (12.5%) 5 (1.8%) <0.001a
   Arrhythmias 4 (1.5%) 7 (2.5%) 0.384a
   Others 2 (0.7%) 1 (0.4%) 0.620c
Respiratory 41 (15.1%) 10 (3.6%) <0.001a
  Hypoxia 17 (6.3%) 2 (0.7%) <0.001a
  Decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 6 (2.2%) 1 (0.4%) 0.066c
  Acute respiratory infection 16 (5.9%) 5 (1.8%) 0.012a
  Others 3 (1.1%) 2 (0.7%) 0.682c
Renal 33 (12.1%) 94 (33.7%) <0.001a
Infections 57 (21.0%) 11 (3.9%) <0.001a
   Surgical wound 8 (2.9%) 0 (0.0%) 0.003c
   Urinary 47 (17.3%) 10 (3.6%) <0.001a
   Systemic 3 (1.1%) 2 (0.7%) 0.682a
Secondary to spinal anaesthesia
 Hematoma/infection/neurological lesion 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) -
Surgical reintervention 6 (2.2%) 0 (0.0%) 0.014c
Length of stay (days) 11 (IQR 8 to 16) 8 (IQR 6 to 11) <0.001b
Destination after discharge    0.327a
 Convalescence 128 (49.8%) 142 (52.0%)  
 Family home 81 (31.5%) 71 (26.0%)  
 Residence 48 (18.7%) 60 (22.0%)  
Thirty-day readmission 29 (11.3%) 21 (7.7%) 0.157a
Survival    0.003d
 1 month 91.2% (87.1 to 94.0%) 96.8% (93.9 to 98.3%)  
 3 months 88.6% (84.2 to 91.8%) 95.3% (92.1 to 97.3%)  
 6 months 83.0% (78.0 to 87.0%) 90.2% (86.0 to 93.2%)  
 12 months 73.4% (67.7 to 78.3%) 83.8% (78.8 to 87.7%)  
  1. Mean ± Standard deviation; n (%); median (range x to y) or median (IQR 25th percentile to 75th percentile)
  2. a Pearson χ2; b Mann–Whitney U; c Fisher’s exact test; d Log-rank test
  3. eIn patients with haemodynamic instability