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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: In-hospital mortality of patients requiring unplanned postoperative ventilatory support: a multicenter observational study

  Extubated (N = 429) Not extubated (N = 269) p-value
Age, years 66 (17) 68 (17) 0.226
BMI, kg·m−2 27.3 (6.7) 27.3 (6.8) 0.937
Female sex 236 (55%) 117 (43%) 0.003
ASA physical status    < 0.001
 I 17 (4%) 12 (4%)  
 II 142 (33%) 34 (13%)  
 III 180 (42%) 90 (33%)  
 IV 87 (20%) 118 (44%)  
 V 2 (0.5%) 15 (6%)  
Active smoking 99 (23%) 68 (25%) 0.518
Active infection 47 (11%) 78 (29%) < 0.001
Urgent/emergent surgery 200 (47%) 201 (75%) < 0.001
Weekend and/or holiday 48 (11%) 55 (20%) 0.001
Evening and/or night hours 242 (56%) 173 (64%) 0.042
Surgical department    < 0.001
 General surgery 169(39%) 112 (42%)  
 Orthopedic surgery 59 (14%) 25 (9%)  
 NORA 46 (11%) 26 (10%)  
 Gynecologic surgery 40 (9%) 2 (1%)  
 ENT 34 (8%) 16 (6%)  
 Neurosurgery 23 (5%) 32 (12%)  
 Urology 22 (5%) 13 (5%)  
 Vascular surgery 12 (3%) 20 (7%)  
 Thoracic surgery 11 (3%) 12 (4%)  
 Othera 8 (2%) 8 (3%)  
Surgical approach — laparotomy/thoracotomy, n (%) 129 (30%) 106 (39%) 0.011
Anesthesia duration, minutes 246 [133, 330] 206.3 [116, 251] < 0.001
Hemodynamic compromiseb 234 (54%) 159 (59%) 0.237
Respiratory compromisec 61 (14%) 66 (24%) 0.001
Intraoperative blood products administration 77 (18%) 71 (26%) 0.016
Intraoperative vasopressor administration 20 (5%) 36 (13%) < 0.001
Hypothermia on PACU admissiond 60 (14%) 35 (13%) 0.715
Intraoperative crystalloids, L 2.1 [1.1, 3.1] 2.2 [1.1, 3.6] 0.032
  1. Demographic, medical, anesthetic, and surgical characteristics of patients who were mechanically ventilated in PACU (N = 698) and were either extubated in PACU or discharged from PACU still intubated (not extubated). Data presented as mean (standard deviation), n (%), or median [interquartile range], as appropriate. All variables that were significantly different between the groups are marked in bold and were entered into the statistical model and adjusted for in the multivariate analysis.
  2. aall departments with frequency < 3%, combined
  3. bhemodynamic compromise defined as either systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure < 65 mmHg that initiated a pharmacologic intervention or transfusion
  4. crespiratory compromise defined as an intraoperative respiratory event that required pharmacologic intervention, recruitment maneuver, or increase in the fraction of inspired oxygen to 0.8 or greater for at least 2 min
  5. dhypothermia defined as core temperature < 35° centigrade
  6. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, BMI body mass index, ENT ears, nose, and throat, NORA nonoperating room anesthesia, PACU postanesthesia care unit