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Table 2 Postoperative complications. Association between the Comprehensive Composite Index (CCI) and continuous or dichotomised preoperative variables, including the Charlson Co-morbidity score, laboratory biomarkers, and CPET-derived variables. Analysis was done using linear regression analysis

From: Clinical covariates that improve surgical risk prediction and guide targeted prehabilitation: an exploratory, retrospective cohort study of major colorectal cancer surgery patients evaluated with preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing

Preoperative parameters

Dichotomised reference level

N

beta

95%CI

P-value

A. Univariable analysis

Charlson Co-morbidity Index

  i. Continuous

 

79

− 0.29

− 2.24, 1.67

0.780

  ii. Dichotomised

< 5

79

− 1.02

− 9.67, 7.62

0.820

Laboratory parameters

  i. Continuous

   • Haemoglobin (g/l)

 

58

− 0.31

− 0.59, − 0.03

0.031

   • White cell count (× 109/l)

 

58

2.46

0.52, 4.40

0.013

   • Neutrophils (× 109/l)

 

58

3.17

0.87, 5.47

0.007

   • Albumin (g/l)

 

34

− 1.29

− 2.18, − 0.41

0.004

   • Modified (neutrophil-albumin) Glasgow Prognostic Score

 

34

12.00

4.32, 19.70

0.002

  ii. Dichotomised

Risk cut-point

    

   • Haemoglobin (g/l)

< 110

58

− 9.39

− 21.40, 2.67

0.130

   • White Cell Count (× 109/l)

> 11

58

23.50

3.63, 43.30

0.020

   • Neutrophils (× 109/l)

> 7.5

58

26.10

8.66, 43.60

0.003

   • Platelets (× 109/l)

> 350

58

6.74

− 8.42, 21.90

0.380

   • Albumin (g/l)

< 35

34

− 12.2

− 23.0, − 1.46

0.026

  iii. Ratios

   • Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)

> 4

58

2.91

− 0.80, 13.80

0.600

   • Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)

> 160

58

3.15

− 8.20, 14.50

0.590

CPET-derived parameters

  i. Continuous

   • Peak VO2 (ml/kg/min)

 

79

− 0.74

− 1.60, 0.12

0.090

   • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2) (× 100)

 

79

− 2.63

− 4.82, − 0.44

0.019

   • VO2 @ AT (ml/kg/min)

 

79

− 0.50

− 1.93, 0.93

0.490

   • Ve/VCO2 @ AT

 

79

0.63

− 0.09, 1.36

0.088

   • PETCO2 @ AT (mmHg)

 

79

− 0.74

− 1.44, − 0.04

0.038

  ii. Dichotomised

Risk cut-point

    

   • Peak VO2 (ml/kg/min)

< 16

79

− 10.20

− 18.90, − 1.53

0.021

   • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2)

< 710

79

− 11.70

− 20.00, − 3.46

0.005

   • VO2 @ AT (ml/kg/min)

< 12

79

− 3.74

− 12.60, 5.07

0.410

   • Ve/VCO2 @ AT

A.1.1.1.1. > 35

79

12.70

0.95, 24.40

0.034

   • PETCO2 @ AT (mmHg)

< 35

79

− 15.50

− 28.00, − 2.93

0.016

B. Bi-variable analysis

 • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2)

< 710

41

− 15.00

− 24.00, − 5.90

0.001

 • Neutrophils (× 109/l)

  

3.10

0.92, 5.20

0.005

 • Neutrophils (× 109/l)

> 7.5

5

22.00

5.20, 39.00

0.010

 • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2)

< 710

41

− 13.00

− 23.00, − 4.00

0.005

 • Neutrophils (× 109/l)

> 7.5

5

24.00

6.60, 42.00

0.007

 • Ve/VCO2 @ AT

> 35

12

7.30

− 5.80, 21.00

0.280

 • Heart rate change: baseline to peak (beats per minute)

< 25

76

− 30.00

− 51.00, − 9.20

0.005

 • Peak VO2 (ml/kg/min)

< 710

41

− 9.30

− 17.00, − 1.20

0.024

  1. CPET, cardiopulmonary exercise testing; Peak VO2, maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise; VO2 @ AT, oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold; Ve/VCO2, minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination; PETCO2 @ AT, partial pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide at anaerobic threshold