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Table 2 Postoperative complications. Association between the Comprehensive Composite Index (CCI) and continuous or dichotomised preoperative variables, including the Charlson Co-morbidity score, laboratory biomarkers, and CPET-derived variables. Analysis was done using linear regression analysis

From: Clinical covariates that improve surgical risk prediction and guide targeted prehabilitation: an exploratory, retrospective cohort study of major colorectal cancer surgery patients evaluated with preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing

Preoperative parameters Dichotomised reference level N beta 95%CI P-value
A. Univariable analysis
Charlson Co-morbidity Index
  i. Continuous   79 − 0.29 − 2.24, 1.67 0.780
  ii. Dichotomised < 5 79 − 1.02 − 9.67, 7.62 0.820
Laboratory parameters
  i. Continuous
   • Haemoglobin (g/l)   58 − 0.31 − 0.59, − 0.03 0.031
   • White cell count (× 109/l)   58 2.46 0.52, 4.40 0.013
   • Neutrophils (× 109/l)   58 3.17 0.87, 5.47 0.007
   • Albumin (g/l)   34 − 1.29 − 2.18, − 0.41 0.004
   • Modified (neutrophil-albumin) Glasgow Prognostic Score   34 12.00 4.32, 19.70 0.002
  ii. Dichotomised Risk cut-point     
   • Haemoglobin (g/l) < 110 58 − 9.39 − 21.40, 2.67 0.130
   • White Cell Count (× 109/l) > 11 58 23.50 3.63, 43.30 0.020
   • Neutrophils (× 109/l) > 7.5 58 26.10 8.66, 43.60 0.003
   • Platelets (× 109/l) > 350 58 6.74 − 8.42, 21.90 0.380
   • Albumin (g/l) < 35 34 − 12.2 − 23.0, − 1.46 0.026
  iii. Ratios
   • Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 4 58 2.91 − 0.80, 13.80 0.600
   • Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) > 160 58 3.15 − 8.20, 14.50 0.590
CPET-derived parameters
  i. Continuous
   • Peak VO2 (ml/kg/min)   79 − 0.74 − 1.60, 0.12 0.090
   • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2) (× 100)   79 − 2.63 − 4.82, − 0.44 0.019
   • VO2 @ AT (ml/kg/min)   79 − 0.50 − 1.93, 0.93 0.490
   • Ve/VCO2 @ AT   79 0.63 − 0.09, 1.36 0.088
   • PETCO2 @ AT (mmHg)   79 − 0.74 − 1.44, − 0.04 0.038
  ii. Dichotomised Risk cut-point     
   • Peak VO2 (ml/kg/min) < 16 79 − 10.20 − 18.90, − 1.53 0.021
   • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2) < 710 79 − 11.70 − 20.00, − 3.46 0.005
   • VO2 @ AT (ml/kg/min) < 12 79 − 3.74 − 12.60, 5.07 0.410
   • Ve/VCO2 @ AT A.1.1.1.1. > 35 79 12.70 0.95, 24.40 0.034
   • PETCO2 @ AT (mmHg) < 35 79 − 15.50 − 28.00, − 2.93 0.016
B. Bi-variable analysis
 • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2) < 710 41 − 15.00 − 24.00, − 5.90 0.001
 • Neutrophils (× 109/l)    3.10 0.92, 5.20 0.005
 • Neutrophils (× 109/l) > 7.5 5 22.00 5.20, 39.00 0.010
 • Peak VO2 (ml/min/m2) < 710 41 − 13.00 − 23.00, − 4.00 0.005
 • Neutrophils (× 109/l) > 7.5 5 24.00 6.60, 42.00 0.007
 • Ve/VCO2 @ AT > 35 12 7.30 − 5.80, 21.00 0.280
 • Heart rate change: baseline to peak (beats per minute) < 25 76 − 30.00 − 51.00, − 9.20 0.005
 • Peak VO2 (ml/kg/min) < 710 41 − 9.30 − 17.00, − 1.20 0.024
  1. CPET, cardiopulmonary exercise testing; Peak VO2, maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise; VO2 @ AT, oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold; Ve/VCO2, minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination; PETCO2 @ AT, partial pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide at anaerobic threshold