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Table 4 Univariable and multivariable models examining factors associated with depression

From: Psychological distress among elderly surgical patients who had their surgery postponed during the COVID-19 pandemic

Covariates Depression Univariable Multivariable
No
Number (%)
Yes
Number (%)
OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Age group (years)  
 65–74 94 (91.3) 9 (8.7) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 75–84 37 (88.1) 5 (11.9) 1.41 (0.44–4.49) 0.560 1.21 (0.28–5.32) 0.801
 ≥ 85 4 (50.0) 4 (50.0) 10.44 (2.22–48.99) 0.003* 4.23 (0.45–39.86) 0.207
Gender  
 Male 74 (96.1) 3 (3.9) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Female 61 (80.3) 15 (19.7) 6.07 (1.68–21.93) 0.006* 4.60 (1.02–20.68) 0.047*
Ethnicity  
 Malay 26 (89.7) 3 (10.3) 1.00 (reference)  
 Chinese 87 (89.7) 10 (10.3) 1.00 (0.26–3.89) 0.996  
 Indian 19 (79.2) 5 (20.8) 2.28 (0.49–10.73) 0.297
 Others 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
Diagnosis  
 Non-cancer 90 (91.8) 8 (8.2) 1.00 (reference)  
 Cancer 8 (81.8) 10 (18.2) 2.50 (0.92–6.77) 0.071
Nature of surgery  
 Minor 79 (92.9) 6 (7.1) 1.00 (reference)  
 Major 56 (82.4) 12 (17.6) 2.82 (1.00–7.97) 0.050
Surgical specialty  
 General surgery 40 (83.3) 8 (16.7) 1.00 (reference)  
 Cardiothoracic surgery 7 (87.5) 1 (12.5) 0.72 (0.08–6.63) 0.767
 Gynaecology 9 (90.0) 1 (10.0) 0.56 (0.06–5.02) 0.601
 Neurosurgery 5 (83.3) 1 (16.7) 1.00 (0.10–9.75) 1.000
 Ophthalmology 32 (94.1) 2 (5.9) 0.31 (0.06–1.58) 0.159
 Orthopaedic surgery 4 (66.7) 2 (22.2) 2.50 (0.39–16.05) 0.334
 Otolaryngology 3 (60.0) 2 (40.0) 3.33 (0.48–23.28) 0.225
 Plastic surgery 2 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Urology 26 (96.3) 1 (3.7) 0.19 (0.02–1.63) 0.130
 Vascular surgery 7 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
Postponement of surgery  
 No 105 (89.7) 12 (10.3) 1.00 (reference)  
 Yes 30 (83.3) 6 (16.7) 1.75 (0.61–5.05) 0.301
Anxiety  
 No 112 (97.4) 3 (2.6) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Yes 23 (60.5) 15 (39.5) 24.35 (6.52–90.99) <  0.001* 16.62 (4.12–66.99) <  0.001*
Appetite  
 Normal 123 (91.8) 11 (8.2) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Decreased 12 (63.2) 7 (36.8) 6.52 (2.13–19.95) 0.001* 3.88 (0.93–16.29) 0.064
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval