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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable models examining factors associated with anxiety

From: Psychological distress among elderly surgical patients who had their surgery postponed during the COVID-19 pandemic

Covariates

Anxiety

Univariable

Multivariable

No

Number (%)

Yes

Number (%)

OR (95% CI)

p value

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

p value

Age group (years)

 

 65–74

81 (78.6)

22 (21.4)

1.00 (reference)

 

1.00 (reference)

 

 75–84

31 (73.8)

11 (26.2)

1.31 (0.57–3.00)

0.530

1.84 (0.58–5.82)

0.297

 ≥ 85

3 (37.5)

5 (62.5)

6.14 (1.36–27.69)

0.018*

1.94 (0.19–20.22)

0.579

Gender

 

 Male

64 (83.1)

13 (16.9)

1.00 (reference)

 

1.00 (reference)

 

 Female

51 (67.1)

25 (32.9)

2.41 (1.12–5.18)

0.024*

0.90 (0.30–2.69)

0.851

Ethnicity

 

 Malay

23 (79.3)

6 (20.7)

1.00 (reference)

 

 Chinese

73 (75.3)

24 (24.7)

1.26 (0.46–3.46)

0.653

 

 Indian

17 (70.8)

7 (29.2)

1.58 (0.45–5.55)

0.477

 Others

2 (66.7)

1 (33.3)

1.92 (0.15–24.87)

0.619

Diagnosis

 

 Non-cancer

79 (80.6)

19 (19.4)

1.00 (reference)

 

1.00 (reference)

 

 Cancer

36 (65.5)

19 (34.5)

2.19 (1.04–4.64)

0.039*

0.44 (0.13–1.51)

0.194

Nature of surgery

 

 Minor

70 (82.4)

15 (17.6)

1.00 (reference)

 

1.00 (reference)

 

 Major

45 (66.2)

23 (33.8)

2.39 (1.13–5.05)

0.023*

1.12 (0.31–4.13)

0.862

Surgical speciality

 

 General surgery

28 (58.3)

20 (41.7)

1.00 (reference)

 

1.00 (reference)

 

 Cardiothoracic surgery

7 (87.5)

1 (12.5)

0.20 (0.02–1.76)

0.146

0.11 (0.01–1.52)

0.099

 Gynaecology

8 (80.0)

2 (20.0)

0.35 (0.07–1.83)

0.213

0.32 (0.05–2.16)

0.240

 Neurosurgery

4 (66.7)

2 (33.3)

0.70 (0.12–4.20)

0.696

0.43 (0.04–4.20)

0.467

 Ophthalmology

31 (91.2)

3 (8.8)

0.14 (0.04–0.51)

0.003*

0.08 (0.01–0.54)

0.010*

 Orthopaedic surgery

2 (33.3)

4 (66.7)

2.80 (0.47–16.80)

0.260

1.66 (0.13–21.63)

0.698

 Otolaryngology

1 (20.0)

4 (80.0)

5.60 (0.58–53.95)

0.136

5.06 (0.39–65.58)

0.214

 Plastic surgery

2 (100.0)

0 (0.0)

 

 

 Urology

25 (92.6)

2 (7.4)

0.11 (0.02–0.53)

0.006*

0.09 (0.01–0.69)

0.021*

 Vascular surgery

7 (100.0)

0 (0.0)

 

 

Postponement of surgery

 

 No

89 (76.1)

28 (23.9)

1.00 (reference)

 

 Yes

26 (72.2)

10 (27.8)

1.22 (0.53–2.84)

0.641

 

Depression

 

 No

112 (83.0)

23 (17.0)

1.00 (reference)

 

1.00 (reference)

 

 Yes

3 (16.7)

15 (83.3)

24.35 (6.52–90.99)

<  0.001*

16.25 (3.23–81.82)

0.001*

Appetite

 

 Normal

106 (79.1)

28 (20.9)

1.00 (reference)

 

1.00 (reference)

 

 Decreased

9 (47.4)

10 (52.6)

4.21 (1.56–11.35)

0.005*

2.41 (0.57–10.12)

0.231

  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval