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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable models examining factors associated with anxiety

From: Psychological distress among elderly surgical patients who had their surgery postponed during the COVID-19 pandemic

Covariates Anxiety Univariable Multivariable
No
Number (%)
Yes
Number (%)
OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Age group (years)  
 65–74 81 (78.6) 22 (21.4) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 75–84 31 (73.8) 11 (26.2) 1.31 (0.57–3.00) 0.530 1.84 (0.58–5.82) 0.297
 ≥ 85 3 (37.5) 5 (62.5) 6.14 (1.36–27.69) 0.018* 1.94 (0.19–20.22) 0.579
Gender  
 Male 64 (83.1) 13 (16.9) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Female 51 (67.1) 25 (32.9) 2.41 (1.12–5.18) 0.024* 0.90 (0.30–2.69) 0.851
Ethnicity  
 Malay 23 (79.3) 6 (20.7) 1.00 (reference)  
 Chinese 73 (75.3) 24 (24.7) 1.26 (0.46–3.46) 0.653  
 Indian 17 (70.8) 7 (29.2) 1.58 (0.45–5.55) 0.477
 Others 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 1.92 (0.15–24.87) 0.619
Diagnosis  
 Non-cancer 79 (80.6) 19 (19.4) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Cancer 36 (65.5) 19 (34.5) 2.19 (1.04–4.64) 0.039* 0.44 (0.13–1.51) 0.194
Nature of surgery  
 Minor 70 (82.4) 15 (17.6) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Major 45 (66.2) 23 (33.8) 2.39 (1.13–5.05) 0.023* 1.12 (0.31–4.13) 0.862
Surgical speciality  
 General surgery 28 (58.3) 20 (41.7) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Cardiothoracic surgery 7 (87.5) 1 (12.5) 0.20 (0.02–1.76) 0.146 0.11 (0.01–1.52) 0.099
 Gynaecology 8 (80.0) 2 (20.0) 0.35 (0.07–1.83) 0.213 0.32 (0.05–2.16) 0.240
 Neurosurgery 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3) 0.70 (0.12–4.20) 0.696 0.43 (0.04–4.20) 0.467
 Ophthalmology 31 (91.2) 3 (8.8) 0.14 (0.04–0.51) 0.003* 0.08 (0.01–0.54) 0.010*
 Orthopaedic surgery 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7) 2.80 (0.47–16.80) 0.260 1.66 (0.13–21.63) 0.698
 Otolaryngology 1 (20.0) 4 (80.0) 5.60 (0.58–53.95) 0.136 5.06 (0.39–65.58) 0.214
 Plastic surgery 2 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Urology 25 (92.6) 2 (7.4) 0.11 (0.02–0.53) 0.006* 0.09 (0.01–0.69) 0.021*
 Vascular surgery 7 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   
Postponement of surgery  
 No 89 (76.1) 28 (23.9) 1.00 (reference)  
 Yes 26 (72.2) 10 (27.8) 1.22 (0.53–2.84) 0.641  
Depression  
 No 112 (83.0) 23 (17.0) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Yes 3 (16.7) 15 (83.3) 24.35 (6.52–90.99) <  0.001* 16.25 (3.23–81.82) 0.001*
Appetite  
 Normal 106 (79.1) 28 (20.9) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Decreased 9 (47.4) 10 (52.6) 4.21 (1.56–11.35) 0.005* 2.41 (0.57–10.12) 0.231
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval