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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis on the association between the perioperative fluid balance and postoperative complications following emergency gastrointestinal surgery

From: Perioperative fluid administration and complications in emergency gastrointestinal surgery—an observational study

Complication Conservative group
N = 179
No. of patients (%)
Liberal group
N = 163
No. of patients (%)
Crude Adjusted analysis¤
  OR (95% CI) * p OR (95% CI) * p
Primary outcome
 Overall complications 98 (58.0) 127 (73.4) 2.9 (1.8–4.7) < 0.001 2.6 (1.5–4.4) < 0.001
Subgroups of outcome      
 Wound-related 39 (23.1) 48 (27.7) 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 0.105 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 0.123
 Superficial wound rupture 18 25     
 Rupture of the fascia 20 20     
 Leakage of the anastomosis 1 3     
 Cardiopulmonary 45 (26.6) 89 (51.4) 3.6 (2.3–5.7) < 0.001 3.2 (1.9–5.7) < 0.001
 Arrhythmia 14 28     
 Acute myocardial infarction 2 2     
 Cardiac arrest 2 0     
 Pleural effusion 9 17     
 Pulmonary congestion 5 14     
 Pulmonary edema 2 2     
 Respiratory failure 11 26     
 Renal 7 (4.1) 15 (8.7) 2.5 (1.0–6.7) 0.053 - -
 Need for dialysis 2 3     
 Other renal§ 5 12     
 Infectious 73 (43.2) 90 (52.0) 1.8 (1.2–2.8) 0.008 1.6 (1.0–2.5) 0.071
 Wound infection 14 12     
 Pneumonia 35 65     
 Urinary tract infection 18 11     
 Other infections 6 2     
  Major complications
Secondary outcome      
 Major complication 46 (27.2) 65 (37.6) 1.9 (1.2–3.0) 0.005 1.6 (1.0–2.7) 0.077
Subgroups of outcome      
 Wound-related 23 (13.6) 27 (15.6) 1.3 (0.7–2.5) 0.333 1.2 (0.6–2.4) 0.606
  Superficial wound rupture 3 4     
  Rupture of the fascia 19 20     
  Leakage of the anastomosis 1 3     
 Cardiopulmonary 22 (13.0) 45 (26.0) 2.7 (1.6–4.9) 0.000 2.5 (1.3–4.9) 0.006
  Arrhythmia 1 3     
  Acute myocardial infarction 4 2     
  Cardiac arrest 2 2     
  Pleural effusion 3 9     
  Pulmonary congestion 0 0     
  Pulmonary edema 2 4     
  Respiratory failure 10 25     
 Renal 5 (3.0) 12 (6.9) 2.8 (1.0–8.9) 0.061 - -
  Need for dialysis 2 3     
  Other renal 3 9     
 Infectious 14 (8.3) 15 (8.7) 1.2 (0.6–2.6) 0.647 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.874
  Wound infection 10 3     
  Pneumonia 4 12     
  Urinary tract infection 0 0     
  Other infections 0 0     
 Death at postoperative day 90 36 (21.3) 51 (29.5) 1.8 (1.1–3.0) 0.019 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.477
  1. ¤Clinical risk factors adjusted for in the model: sex, age in the potency, ASA class (dichotomized at ASA class 3), use of epidural analgesia (yes or no), use of vasopressors (yes or no), the type of surgery (bowel resection, palliative surgery, or other procedures), gastrointestinal obstruction or perforation, and the Hospital (Holbæk, Slagelse, or Køge). *OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval. §Hydronephrosis with nephrostomy catheter or treatment stalled due to renal failure. A p-value < 0.01 is considered significant