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Table 2 Perioperative fluid administration, losses, and associated variables during and after emergency gastrointestinal surgery

From: Perioperative fluid administration and complications in emergency gastrointestinal surgery—an observational study

  Conservative group (perioperative balance ≤2.5 L), median [IQR] or no. (%)
n = 179
Liberal group (perioperative balance > 2.5 L), median [IQR] or no. (%)
n = 163
Intraoperative data
 Fluid variables, mL   
  iv# crystalloids 1400 [950, 1830] 2360 [1600, 3280]
  iv colloids 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 500]
  iv glucose containing fluids 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 0]
  iv blood products 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 0]
  iv other fluids 110 [60, 170] 190 [90, 280]
  Total iv fluid administration 1610 [1120, 2040] 2750 [2090, 3750]
  Total iv fluid administration (mL kg−1 h−1) 9.8 [7.5, 12.7] 13.3 [9.0, 18.2]
  Missing, no. 3 0
  Diuresis 120 [0, 380] 180 [70, 450]
  Blood loss 0 [0, 130] 100 [0, 400]
  Other loss 110 [70, 420] 120 [80, 260]
  Total loss 490 [140, 1130] 600 [310, 1130]
  Fluid balance 930 [570, 1290] 2030 [1550, 2790]
 Hypotensive episodes 79 (44.1) 105 (64.4)
 Vasopressor given 156 (87.2) 152 (93.3)
 Ephedrine, mg, n = 118 / 100§ 20.0 [10.0, 30.0] 17.5 [10.0, 30.0]
 Norepinephrine, mg, n = 10 / 40§ 1.5 [0.4, 3.4] 2.8 [1.8, 5.0]
 Phenylephrine, mg, n = 94 / 112§ 1.0 [0.4, 2.2] 2.8 [1.0, 5.7]
Postoperative data
 Fluid variables, mL   
  iv crystalloids 720 [400, 1280] 1900 [1090, 3170]
  iv colloids 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 400]
  iv glucose 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 230]
  iv blood products 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 0]
  iv other fluids 180 [5, 350] 410 [180, 1190]
  Total iv fluid administration 950 [590, 1510] 2970 [1710, 5620]
  Total iv fluid administration (mL kg−1 h−1) 3.5 [2.3, 4.8] 4.6 [3.7, 6.8]
  Missing, no. 3 1
  Diuresis 140 [0, 500] 530 [110, 1320]
  Blood loss 0 [0, 0] 0 [0, 0]
  Other loss 140 [80, 280] 340 [140, 770]
  Total loss 270 [110, 830] 970 [270, 2240]
  Fluid balance 520 [250, 850] 1750 [1110, 3110]
 Hypotensive episodes 17 (9.5) 46 (28.4)
  Missing, no. 0 1
 Vasopressor given 22 (12.3) 71 (43.8)
 Ephedrine, mg, n = 6 / 13§ 15.0 [10.0, 20.0] 10.0 [10.0, 20.0]
 Norepinephrine, mg, n = 12 / 47§ 5.9 [3.4, 14.2] 12.8 [6.2, 20.0]
 Phenylephrine, mg, n = 9 / 19§ 2.2 [1.0, 8.1] 3.1 [0.5, 5.9]
Perioperative fluid data
 Epidural analgesia, no. (%) 77 (43.0) 70 (42.9)
 Total iv fluid administration 2610 [2160, 3310] 6000 [4290, 8930]
 Total iv fluid administration (mL kg−1 h−1) 5.9 [4.1, 7.8] 7.3 [5.4, 10.2]
  Missing, no. 3 0
 Total loss 920 [480, 2000] 1900 [960, 3350]
 Fluid balance, mL 1580 [1000, 2040] 3620 [3020, 5340]
 Fluid balance, mL kg−1 h−1 3.3 [1.7, 5.2] 4.7 [3.4, 7.2]
  Missing, no. 3 0
  1. #Intravenous. §The result is presented for those who received vasopressor or inotropic as specified by the n = (conservative / liberal)