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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the conservative or liberal fluid group of patients undergoing emergency gastrointestinal surgery

From: Perioperative fluid administration and complications in emergency gastrointestinal surgery—an observational study

  Conservative group (perioperative balance ≤2.5 L), number of patients (%) Liberal group (perioperative balance > 2.5 L), number of patients (%)
Number of patients 179 163
Sex Female 100 (55.9) 93 (57.1)
Age group Years (median (IQR) φ) 70.0 [57.5, 79.0] 72.0 [66.0, 79.0]
Body mass index Median (IQR) 23.9 [21.1, 26.8] 23.9 [21.5, 27.9]
Missing 14 10
Smoking habits Current smoker 55 (32.4) 55 (34.2)
Missing 9 2
Alcohol intake, female/male > 7/> 14 units week−1 15 (8.7) 24 (15.5)
Missing 7 8
ASA classification 1–2 110 (61.5) 77 (47.2)
3–5 69 (38.5) 86 (52.8)
Sepsis-2 score, preoperative 0–2 162 (91.5) 126 (77.8)
3–4 15 (8.5) 36 (22.2)
Missing 2 1
Co-morbidity# Heart disease 45 (25.1) 39 (23.9)
Hypertension 73 (40.8) 79 (48.5)
Pulmonary disease 26 (14.5) 31 (19.0)
Liver disease 10 (5.6) 5 (3.1)
Renal disease 11 (6.1) 15 (9.2)
Diabetes mellitus 19 (10.6) 29 (17.8)
Active cancer disease 24 (13.4) 30 (18.4)
Diagnosis Adhesions 94 (52.5) 61 (37.4)
Crohn disease 3 (1.7) 2 (1.2)
Diverticulitis 13 (7.3) 15 (9.2)
Hernia, strangulated 7 (3.9) 7 (4.3)
Intraabdominal cancer 23 (12.8) 30 (18.4)
Perforated ulcer 12 (6.7) 15 (9.2)
Arterial ischemia 4 (2.2) 5 (3.1)
Volvulus 11 (6.1) 9 (5.5)
Other* 12 (6.7) 19 (11.7)
Surgical indication Gastrointestinal obstruction 149 (83.2) 109 (66.9)
Gastrointestinal perforation 30 (16.8) 54 (33.1)
Surgical procedure Bowel resection 59 (33.0) 98 (60.1)
Other procedure§ 102 (57.0) 49 (30.1)
Palliative surgeryθ 18 (10.1) 16 (9.8)
Laparoscopy   11 (6.1) 11 (6.7)
Primary anastomosis Small bowel 16 (8.9) 21 (12.9)
Ileo-colic 12 (6.7) 9 (5.5)
Colo-colic 2 (1.1) 5 (3.1)
Time to surgery, hour   
 From hospital admission 0–12 h 67 (37.4) 71 (43.6)
> 12 h 111 (62.0) 92 (56.4)
missing 1 0
 From assessment by surgeon Hour (median [IQR] φ) 3.0 [2.0, 6.0] 3.0 [2.0, 6.0]
Missing 1 0
Time of surgery, median [IQR] 1.6 [1.1, 2.3] 2.3 [1.6, 3.3]
3 2
Time of anesthesia, median [IQR] 2.2 [1.8, 2.9] 3.0 [2.2, 4.0]
Immediate postoperative intensive care 15 (8.4) 53 (32.5)
Sepsis-2 score, postoperative 0–2 137 (76.5) 89 (54.6)
3–4 38 (21.2) 72 (44.2)
Missing 4 2
  1. #Some patients have more than one co-morbidity. φInterquartile range. *Unclassified surgery on the small or large bowel. §Adhesiolysis, gastro-duodenorrhaphia, herniotomy, or peritoneal lavage. θExculpatory stoma formation or limited treatment