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Table 1 Comparison between patients with and without adverse outcomes

From: The need for nutritional assessment and interventions based on the prognostic nutritional index for patients with femoral fractures: a retrospective study

Variables No adverse outcomes (n = 184) Adverse outcomes (n = 159) P values
Male/female, n (%) 88 (47.8)/96 (52.2) 70 (44.0)/89 (56.0) 0.481
Left/right femur, n (%) 94 (51.1)/90 (48.9) 78 (49.1)/81 (50.9) 0.708
Age, years, mean (range) 60 (43.25–71) 70 (60–81) < 0.001
Weight, kg, mean (range) 55 (50–62) 55 (50–60) 0.259
Hypertension, n (%) 45 (24.5) 74 (46.5) < 0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 12 (6.5) 18 (11.3) 0.117
Combined injuries, n (%) 112 (43.1) 47 (56.6) 0.031
Aetiology, n (%)
 Sprain or tumble 142 (77.2) 123 (77.4) 0.968
 RTA, falls or assaults 42 (22.8) 36 (22.6)  
Fracture site, n (%)
 Proximal femoral fracture 140 (76.1) 117 (73.6) 0.493
 Femoral shaft fracture 39 (21.2) 40 (25.2)  
 Distal femoral fracture 5 (2.7) 2 (1.3)  
Time to admission, n (%)
 1: Within 24 h 127 (69.0) 81 (50.9) 0.002
 2: 2–3 days 17 (9.2) 24 (15.1)  
 3: 4–7 days 14 (7.6) 19 (11.9)  
 4: 8–21 days 12 (6.5) 26 (16.4)  
 5: ≥ 22 days 14 (7.6) 9 (5.7)  
ASA, n (%)
 I 4 (2.2) 2 (1.3) < 0.001
 II 157 (85.3) 106 (66.7)  
 III 23 (12.5) 50 (31.4)  
 IV 0 (0) 1 (0.6)  
Surgeons, n (%)
 Surgeon A 28 (15.2) 22 (13.8) 0.161
 Surgeon B 38 (20.7) 21 (13.2)  
 Surgeon C 22 (12.0) 18 (11.3)  
 Surgeon D 27 (14.7) 22 (13.8)  
 Surgeon E 31 (16.8) 32 (20.1)  
 Surgeon F 13 (7.1) 17 (10.7)  
 Surgeon G 18 (9.8) 11 (6.9)  
 Surgeon H 7 (3.8) 16 (10.1)  
Operation types, n (%)
 Hemi/total-hip hip replacement 73 (39.7) 43 (27.0) 0.014
 Internal fixation 111 (60.3) 116 (73.0)  
Anaesthesia methods, n (%)
 General anaesthesia 47 (25.5) 35 (22.0) 0.445
 Non-general anaesthesia 137 (74.5) 124 (78.0)  
Postoperative analgesic methods, n (%)
 No postoperative analgesia 9 (4.9) 4 (2.5) 0.315
 PCIA 123 (66.8) 101 (63.5)  
 PCEA 52 (28.3) 54 (34.0)  
Duration of anaesthesia, min, mean (range) 180 (140–225) 180 (149–230) 0.323
Duration of surgery, min, mean (range) 111 (80–153.5) 110 (80–155) 0.914
Blood transfusion, n (%) 61 (33.2) 87 (54.7) < 0.001
Intra-blood loss, × 102 ml, mean (range) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.052
Intra-crystal liquids, × 102 ml, mean (range) 8.5 (6–11) 7.5 (6–11) 0.662
Intra-colloidal liquids, × 102 ml, mean (range) 5 (5–7.5) 5 (5–10) 0.983
Postoperative hospital stay, days, mean (range) 6 (4–7) 7 (5–9) < 0.001
Blood test at admission
 ALB, g/l, mean ± SD 38 ± 3.91 34.48 ± 4.34 < 0.001
 PAb, mg/l, mean (range) 191 (154–229.5) 158 (126–194) < 0.001
 Hb, g/l, mean ± SD 120.02 ± 18.96 108.24 ± 20.99 < 0.001
 GLB, g/l, mean (range) 27.15 (23.35–29.95) 27.70 (24.90–30.80) 0.110
 LYM count, × 109/l, mean (range) 1.30 (0.98–1.68) 1.12 (0.87–1.50) 0.004
 NEUT count, × 109/l, mean (range) 5.52 (4.31–7.16) 4.97 (3.92–6.43) 0.035
 NLR, mean (range) 4.21 (2.96–6.09) 4.71 (3.27–7.20) 0.150
 PNI, mean ± SD 44.54 ± 5.05 39.30 ± 4.99 < 0.001
Blood test at 1 day postoperatively
 ALB, g/l, mean (range) 29.2 (27.2–32.58) 27.4 (24.6–29.3) < 0.001
 PAb, mg/l, mean (range) 104 (75–147) 86 (66–114) < 0.001
 Hb, g/l, mean (range) 91 (78–99.75) 83 (72–93) < 0.001
 GLB, g/l, mean (range) 22.70 (19.20–25.28) 21.40 (19.10–24.00) 0.045
 LYM count, × 109/l, mean (range) 0.84 (0.67–1.14) 0.73 (0.53–0.97) 0.001
 NEUT count, × 109/L, mean (range) 7.81 (5.92–10.01) 8.40 (6.60–11.41) 0.026
 NLR, mean (range) 9.06 (5.86–13.49) 10.20 (8.07–14.86) 0.001
 PNI, mean (range) 34.15 (31.55–37.61) 31.70 (29.05–34.20) < 0.001
Blood test before discharge
 ALB, g/l, mean ± SD 32.75 ± 3.44 32.32 ± 4.14 0.293
 PAb, mg/l, mean (range) 112.5 (86.25–160) 104 (80–141) 0.028
 Hb, g/l, mean (range) 93 (83–102.75) 91 (82–100) 0.129
 GLB, g/l, mean (range) 24.50 (21.73–27.30) 24.20 (22.10–27.90) 0.614
 LYM count, × 109/L, mean (range) 1.04 (0.81–1.41) 1.04 (0.71–1.33) 0.140
 NEUT count, × 109/L, mean (range) 5.76 (4.36–7.30) 5.31 (4.17–7.21) 0.431
 NLR, mean (range) 5.29 (3.72–8.08) 5.56 (3.78–8.29) 0.440
 PNI, mean (range) 37.83 (34.75–41.05) 37.05 (33.85–41.60) 0.152
  1. Bold text represents confounding factors with P < 0.10
  2. ALB albumin, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, GLB globulin, Hb haemoglobin, Intra- intraoperative, LYM lymphocyte, NEUT neutrophil, NLR neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, PAb Prealbumin, PCEA patient-controlled epidural analgesia, PCIA patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, PNI prognostic nutritional index, RTA road traffic accidents