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Table 2 Predictors of receiving a high-risk discharge opioid prescription

From: The association of multimodal analgesia and high-risk opioid discharge prescriptions in opioid-naive surgical patients

  AOR Lower CL Upper CL P value
Sex (reference: female)
  Male 1.132 1.06 1.209 0.0032
Race (reference: White)
  Black 0.782 0.675 0.907 0.0004
  Asian 0.837 0.754 0.928  
  American Indian or Alaska Native 0.739 0.486 1.124  
  Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.882 0.651 1.195  
  other 0.907 0.831 0.991  
  unknown 0.854 0.701 1.041  
Discharge year (reference: 2018)
  2012 2.405 2.072 2.791 < .0001
  2013 3.189 2.818 3.61  
  2014 2.507 2.218 2.833  
  2015 2.355 2.092 2.651  
  2016 1.991 1.772 2.237  
  2017 1.722 1.534 1.934  
Length of stay in days (reference < 3)
  3 to 6 1.837 1.702 1.983 < .0001
  > 6 2.158 1.968 2.366  
History of substance use disorder 0.971 0.734 1.284 0.8348
History of depression 0.942 0.825 1.075 0.3744
History of anxiety 2.625 1.415 4.868 0.0022
Peripheral nerve catheter or epidural used 24 h prior to discharge 1.027 0.916 1.151 0.6502
Multimodal consumed 24 h prior to discharge (reference = no)
  acetaminophen 1.108 1.041 1.170 0.0021
  NSAID 1.016 0.927 1.113 0.7392
  gabapentinoids 1.027 0.92 1.146 0.6324
Multimodal prescribed at discharge (reference = no)
  acetaminophen 1.104 1.029 1.173 0.0075
  NSAID 0.927 0.813 1.056 0.2545
  gabapentinoids 1.486 1.420 1.544 < .0001
Total OME consumed 24 h prior to discharge (reference = 0)
  > 0–30 1.577 1.421 1.75 < .0001
  30–60 3.057 2.749 3.4  
  60–90 5.141 4.58 5.77  
  90+ 10.431 9.332 11.659  
Days of opioids on discharge prescription (reference ≤ 7 days)
  > 7 days 0.675 0.628 0.726 < .0001
Return to operating room during surgical admission 0.917 0.812 1.036 0.1658
Discharge Service (reference General surgery)
  Orthopedics 4.662 4.138 5.252 < .0001
  Thoracic surgery 3.122 2.45 3.978  
  Cardiac surgery 2.766 2.304 3.32  
  Urology 2.165 1.897 2.472  
  Critical care medicine 1.832 0.737 4.557  
  Neurosurgery 1.609 1.442 1.794  
  Gynecologic oncology 1.368 1.115 1.679  
  Malignant hematology 1.278 0.717 2.278  
  Advanced heart failure 0.879 0.263 2.94  
  Vascular surgery 0.874 0.707 1.081  
  Otolaryngology, head and neck surgery 0.837 0.682 1.028  
  Advanced lung disease 0.788 0.156 3.988  
  Plastic surgery 0.783 0.581 1.055  
  Colorectal surgery 0.756 0.606 0.943  
  Gynecology 0.695 0.46 1.051  
  Hospital medicine 0.549 0.412 0.733  
  Transplant surgery 0.516 0.305 0.871  
  Liver transplant 0.457 0.354 0.592  
  Pediatric service 0.449 0.301 0.671  
  Obstetrics 0.404 0.32 0.509  
  Kidney transplant 0.397 0.322 0.49  
  Neurovascular 0.275 0.096 0.788  
  Ophthalmology 0.178 0.023 1.353  
  Neurology 0.131 0.032 0.54  
  Oral and maxillofacial surgery 0.128 0.052 0.316  
  Cardiology 0.059 0.008 0.427