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Table 2 Analgesics used postoperatively

From: Chronic pain after breast surgery: incidence, associated factors, and impact on quality of life, an observational prospective study

  Total (n = 307) No-CPBS (n = 221) CPBS (n = 86) OR [95% CI] p
Prescribed for postoperative analgesia
 Paracetamol 307 (100%) 221 (100%) 86 (100%)
 Morphine (PCA) 142 (46.3%) 101 (45.7%) 41 (47.7%) 1.08 [0.64–1.84] 0.799
 Tramadol rescue 95 (30.9%) 62 (28.1%) 33 (38.8%) 1.62 [0.93–2.84] 0.074
 Ketorolac rescue 70 (22.8%) 54 (24.4%) 16 (21.1%) 0.83 [0.41–1.60] 0.639
Actually administered for postoperative analgesia
At 3 h Total (n = 307) No-CPBS (n = 221) CPBS (n = 86)   
  Currently using PCA 142/142 (100%) 101/101 (100%) 41/41 (100%)   
   Doses requested 1 [0, 21] 0 [0, 21] 1 [0, 9] 1.05 [0.91–1.21] 0.472
   Doses administered 1 [1, 6] 0 [0, 6] 1 [0, 5] 1.05 [0.79–1.39] 0.751
  Tramadol rescue 4/95 (4.2%) 3/62 (4.8%) 1/33 (3.0%) 0.67 [0.07–6.72] 0.731
  Ketorolac rescue 3/70 (4.3%) 3/54 (5.6%) 0/16 (0%)
At 6 h Total (n = 292) No-CPBS (n = 208) CPBS (n = 84)   
  Currently using PCA 139/142 (97.9%) 99/101 (98.0%) 40/41 (97.6%)   
   Doses requested 1 [0, 26] 1 [0, 26] 1.50 [0, 15] 1.08 [0.98–1.18] 0.133
   Doses administered 1 [0, 11] 1 [0, 11] 2 [0, 10] 1.16 [0.98–1.36] 0.078
  Tramadol rescue 1/81 (1.2%) 0 (0%) 1/26 (3.8%)
  Ketorolac rescue 1/57 (1.8%) 1/46 (2.2%) 0 (0%)
At 12 h Total (n = 254) No-CPBS (n = 180) CPBS (n = 74)   
  Currently using PCA 106/142 (74.7%) 76/101 (75.2%) 30/41 (73.2%)   
   Doses requested 2 [0, 28] 2 [0, 28] 4 [0, 25] 1.06 [0.99–1.14] 0.119
   Doses administered 2 [0,14] 2 [0, 13] 3.50 [0, 14] 1.11 [0.98–1.25] 0.097
  Tramadol rescue 2/69 (2.9%) 1/46 (2.2%) 1/23 (4.3%) 2.05 [0.12–34.3] 0.619
  Ketorolac rescue 5/54 (9.3%) 4/44 (9.1%) 1/10 (10.0%) 1.11 [0.11–11.2] 0.929
At 24 h   No-CPBS (n = 111) CPBS (n = 45)   
  Currently using PCA 47/110 (42.7%) 32/79 (40.5%) 15/31 (48.4%)   
   Doses requested 3 [0, 35] 3 [0, 23] 4 [1, 35] 1.05 [0.96–1.15] 0.298
   Doses administered 3 [0, 17] 3 [0, 17] 4 [1, 14] 1.06 [0.91–1.24] 0.292
  Tramadol rescue 0/26 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
  Ketorolac rescue 2/33 (6.1%) 2/27 (7.4%) 0 (0%)
At 48 h   No-CBPS (n = 35) CPBS (n = 23)   
  Currently using PCA 4/142 (2.82%) 1/24 (4.2%) 3/17 (17.6%)   
   Doses requested 12 [4, 13] 11 13 [4, 13] 0.92 [0.47–1.82] 0.817
   Doses administered 6.5 [4, 11] 11 4 [4, 9]
  Tramadol rescue 0/8 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
  Ketorolac rescue 1/9 (11.1%) 0 (0%) 1 (100%)
  1. At the different time points, the percentages of patients on the surgical ward using PCA and/or tramadol and ketorolac tromethamine as prescribed rescue analgesics are reported over time. Requested and administered doses are expressed as median and minimum-maximum values. Among patients treated with PCA in the No-CPBS and CPBS groups, those receiving less than 3 doses (1 dose = morphine 1 mg) were respectively 94 (93.1%) and 40 (97.6%) in the first 3 h postoperatively and 84 (84.8%) and 31 (77.5%) in the first 6 h postoperatively; those receiving less than 6 doses in the first 12 h postoperatively were 67 (88.2%) and 26 (86.7%), respectively; those receiving less than 10 doses in the first 24 h were 28 (87.5%) and 14 (93.3%), respectively; those receiving less than 15 doses in the first 48 h postoperatively were 1 (100%) and 3 (100%), respectively
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