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Table 1 Patients’ baseline characteristics, surgical, and anaesthesiologic factors in CPBS and No-CPBS groups

From: Chronic pain after breast surgery: incidence, associated factors, and impact on quality of life, an observational prospective study

  Total (n = 307) No-CPBS (n = 221) CPBS (n = 86) OR [95% CI] p
Patient characteristics
 Age (years) 56.2 ± 12.4 55.3 ± 12.4 53.6 ± 11.2 0.99 [0.97–1.01] 0.275
 Height (cm) 163.5 ± 6.3 163.6 ± 6.6 163.4 ± 5.3 0.99 [0.96–1.04] 0.824
 Weight (kg) 64.5 ± 12.5 55.3 ± 5.9 55.2 ± 4.8 0.10 [0.99–1.03] 0.212
 BMI (Kg/m2) 24.1 ± 4.4 23.9 ± 4.1 24.7 ± 4.9 1.04 [0.98–1.10] 0.168
 Preoperative pain 95 (30.9%) 56 (25.3%) 39 (45.3%) 1.13 [0.64–1.97] 0.686
 Chronic use of pain drugs 19 (6.2%) 9 (4.1%) 10 (11.6%) 3.10 [1.21–7.92] 0.018
 Anxiety/depression 43 (14%) 33 (14.9%) 10 (11.6%) 0.75 [0.35–1.60] 0.446
 Fibromyalgia 2 (0.7%) 1 (0.5%) 1 (1.2%) 2.59 [0.16–41.90] 0.511
 Neoadjuvant-CHT 23 (7.5%) 15 (6.8%) 8 (9.3%) 1.41 [0.58–3.45] 0.461
 Preop. hormone therapy 37 (12.1%) 28 (12.7%) 9 (10.5%) 0.81 [0.36–1.79] 0.589
 Neoadjuvant-RT 1 (0.33%) 1 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%)
 Previous ipsilateral breast surgery 108 (35.18%) 78 (35.3%) 30 (34.9%) 0.98 [0.58–1.66] 1.000
 School education      0.517
  Primary school 30 (9.77%) 24 (10.9%) 6 (7.0%) 0.79 [0.28–2.24]  
  Secondary school 57 (18.57%) 40 (18.1%) 17 (19.8%) 1.35 [0.62–2.93]  
  High school 145 (47.23%) 100 (45.2%) 45 (52.3%) 1.42 [0.75–2.69]  
   University 75 (24.43%) 57 (25.8%) 18 (20.9%) Ref.  
Surgical factors
 Breast-conserving surgery 149 (48.5%) 110 (49.8%) 39 (45.3%) 0.84 [0.51–1.38] 0.526
 Mastectomy 91 (29.6%) 61 (27.6%) 30 (34.9%) 1.41 [0.83–2.39] 0.214
 Implant-based reconstructive surgery (tissue-expandersor prosthesis) 113 (36.8%) 81 (36.7%) 32 (37.2%) 1.02 [0.61–1.72] 0.928
  Pre-pectoral prosthesis 23 (7.5%) 17 (21.0%) 6 (18.8%) Ref.
  Under-pectoral prosthesis or tissue-expander 47 (15.3%) 32 (39.5%) 15 (46.9%) 1.33 [0.44–4.05] 0.618
  Tissue-expander substitution with prosthesis 43 (14.0%) 32 (39.5%) 11 (34.4%) 0.97 [0.31–3.09] 0.964
 Axillary surgery 146 (47.6%) 95 (43.0%) 51 (59.3%) 1.93 [1.17–3.21] 0.011
  Sentinel node biopsy 99 (32.3%) 64 (29.0%) 35 (40.7%) 0.94 [0.46–1.96] 0.877
  Axillary lymph node dissection 47(15.3%) 31 (14.0%) 16 (18.6%)
 Cosmetic surgery 68 (22.2%) 48 (21.7%) 20 (23.3%) 1.09 [0.60–1.98] 0.762
 Dorsal-flap reconstructive surgery 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%)
 Bilateral surgery 103 (33.6%) 70 (31.8%) 33 (38.4%) 1.33 [0.79–2.24] 0.276
 Selective pectoral nerves dissection 19 (6.2%) 12 (5.5%) 7 (8.1%) 1.53 [0.58–4.02] 0.390
Anaesthesiologic factors
 Total intravenous anaesthesia 251 (81.8%) 180 (81.4%) 71 (82.6%) 0.93 [0.48–1.78] 0.821
  Propofol 251 (81.8%) 180 (81.4%) 71 (82.6%) 1.08 [0.56–2.07] 0.821
  Remifentanil 221 (72.0%) 157 (71.0%) 64 (74.4%) 1.19 [0.67–2.09] 0.554
  Sufentanil 29 (9.5%) 22 (10.0%) 7 (8.1%) 0.80 [0.33–1.95] 0.626
  Fentanil 14 (4.6%) 9 (4.1%) 5 (5.8%) 1.45 [0.47–4.47] 0.513
 Inhaled anaesthesia 56 (18.2%) 41 (18.6%) 15 (17.4%) 1.07 [0.56–2.07] 0.999
  Sevorane 40 (13%) 29 (13.1%) 11 (12.8%) 0.88 [0.23–3.32] 0.846
  Desflurane 16 (5.2%) 12 (5.4%) 4 (4.7%) 1.14 [0.30–4.29] 0.846
  Remifentanil 32 (10.4%) 22 (10.0%) 10 (11.6%) 0.58 [0.16–1.94] 0.384
  Fentanil 24 (7.8%) 19 (8.6%) 5 (5.8%) 1.73 [0.50–5.95] 0.384
 Regional anaesthesia 66 (21.5%) 53 (24.0%) 13 (15.1%) 0.56 [0.29–1.10] 0.092
  PECS 1 28 (9.1%) 22 (10.0%) 6 (7.0%) 0.68 [0.27–1.74] 0.418
  PECS 2 17 (5.6%) 12 (5.4%) 5 (5.8%) 1.08 [0.37–3.15] 0.895
  Local anaesthetics infiltration 21 (6.8%) 19 (8.6%) 2 (2.3%) 0.25 [0.03–1.09] 0.075
 Intraoperative analgesia
  Paracetamol 265 (86.3%) 188 (85.1%) 77 (89.5%) 1.50 [0.69–3.29] 0.309
  Ketorolac 49 (16.0%) 33 (14.9%) 16 (18.6%) 1.30 [0.68–2.51] 0.431
  Morphine 242 (7.8%) 169 (76.5%) 73 (84.9%) 1.73 [0.89–3.37] 0.108
  1. Among anaesthesiologic factors, specific drugs used for total intravenous anaesthesia and inhaled anaesthesia are described for both CPBS and No-CPBS groups. For patients treated with locoregional anaesthesia, use of pectoralis and serratus plane blocks (PECS1 and PECS2) and of local anaesthetics infiltration is reported. For variables with more than two levels, OR [95% CI] are expressed with respect to the level used as reference (Ref.). Wald test p-values are 0.774 for implant-based reconstructive surgery and 0.517 for school education. Among patients who underwent axillary surgery, differences between those treated with sentinel node biopsy and those treated with axillary lymph node dissection were evaluated with a chi-squared test (OR [95% CI] = 0.94 [0.46–1.96], p-value = 0.877)
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