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Table 2 Intraoperative variables

From: The effect of adding goal-directed hemodynamic management for elective patients in an established enhanced recovery program for colorectal surgery: results of quasi-experimental pragmatic trial

Variable Pre-ERP
(n = 246)
ERP
(n = 140)
ERP + GDHT
(n = 237)
P value
Times
 Surgery time (min) 144 (108, 195) 178 (135, 237) 165 (122, 214) < 0.01
 Anesthesia time (min) 179 (144, 237) 222 (179, 282) 206 (164, 263) < 0.01
Use of epidural analgesia, N (%) of patients receiving 16 (6.5%) 16 (11.4%) 11 (4.7%) 0.04
Surgical site infection prevention
 Pre-incision antibiotics % 246 (100%) 140 (100%) 236 (99.6%) 0.44
 Median temperature, °C 36.4 (36.1, 36.7) 36.3 (36.0, 36.7) 36.0 (35.7, 36.3) < 0.01
 Fraction of inspired oxygen 0.60 (0.55, 0.80) 0.81 (0.76, 0.84) 0.75 (0.59, 0.80) < 0.01
 End-tidal carbon dioxide, mmHg 34 (32, 38) 38 (35, 39) 37 (34, 39) < 0.01
Glucose
 Preoperative, mg/dL 95 (87,106) 102 (92,123) 105 (92,124) < 0.01
 Recovery room, mg/dL 146 (127,168) 144 (122,172) 158 (138,178) 0.11
 Recovery room glucose > 180, N (%) of patients 9 (3.7%) 17 (12.1%) 17 (7.2%) 0.01
Intraoperative intravenous fluid use
 Total Intravenous fluids, mL 2125 (1700,2925) 1900 (1450,2500) 1800 (1500,2300) < 0.01
 Crystalloid, mL 2000 (1600,2800) 1800 (1450,2428) 1800 (1500,2300) < 0.01
 Plasmalyte-A or lactated r
inger’s, mL
2000 (1500,2600) 1700 (1400,2400) 1800 (1438,2200) 0.04
 Colloid, N (%) 36 (14.6%) 9 (6.4%) 15 (6.4%) < 0.01
 Albumin, N (%) 35 (14.2%) 9 (6.4%) 14 (5.9%) < 0.01
 Fresh frozen plasma, N (%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0.80
 Packed red blood cells, N (%) 4 (1.6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0.8%) 0.43
 Blood loss, mL 50 (50,100) 75 (29,150) 73 (30,150) 0.98
Vasopressor drug use
 Vasopressor bolus, N (%) 142 (57.7%) 97 (69.3%) 169 (71.2%) < 0.01
 Vasopressor infusion, N (%) 9 (3.7%) 14 (10.0%) 53 (22.5%) < 0.01
 Inotrope bolus, N (%) 103 (41.9%) 50 (35.7%) 122 (51.3%) 0.01
 Inotrope infusion, N (%) 0 (0%) 1 (0.7%) 2 (0.8%) 0.37
Disposition from operating room (% going to each destination)
 Surgical ward, % 246 (100%) 139 (99.3%) 236 (99.6%) 0.46
 Intensive care unit, % 0 (0%) 1 (0.7%) 1 (0.4%)  
  1. ERP enhanced recovery program, GDHT goal-directed hemodynamic therapy, median temperature denotes the average of the median temperature of patients in each group, vasopressor phenylephrine, norepinephrine, or vasopressin, intotrope ephedrine, epinephrine, dobutamine, or dopamine. Continuous variables are shown in median (25th, 75th percentile), categorical data are shown in percentage (%). P values were calculated using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test for categorical variables. P values for any differences among groups