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Table 4 Results of multivariate regression analysis—primary outcomes

From: Using provider-focused education toolkits can aid enhanced recovery programs to further reduce patient exposure to opioids

 Estimate compared to pre-implementation year*95% confidence limitsp value
Intraoperative OME− 15 milliequivalents− 10.3 to − 19.9< 0.0001
0–12 h postop OME5.1 milliequivalents− 28 to 38.60.76
12–24 h postop OME− 29.5 milliequivalents− 62.6 to 3.50.08
24-36 h postop OME− 22.8 milliequivalents− 43 to − 2.40.03
Total OME day before discharge− 18 milliequivalents− 5.7 to − 310.005
Total OME day of discharge− 9.9 milliequivalents− 16 to − 3.50.003
  1. OME oral morphine equivalents
  2. *Covariate of interest was post-implementation year (compared with pre-implementation year). Models accounted for age, gender, service line, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) rating, opioid use at the time of admission (including methadone), surgical approach (minimally invasive vs open), case mix index, epidural use, and multimodal analgesic