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Table 2 Patient and surgery characteristics

From: Using provider-focused education toolkits can aid enhanced recovery programs to further reduce patient exposure to opioids

 Pre-implementation, N = 869Post-implementation, N = 838
Demographics
 Age, median (inter-quartile range)54 years (43–66)57 years(43–67)
 Women68.8%69.9%
 ASA rating 2–389%93.6%
 Ongoing opioid use33.8%33.2%
 Methadone users2.3%2.4%
Surgical service
 Colorectal50.1%50.1%
 Gynecology42%42.1%
 Urology (cystectomy)7.2%6.6%
Operative details
 Laparoscopic31.9%29.9%
 Robotic15.3%17.9%
 Case mix index*, median (inter-quartile range)1.95 (1.61–2.54)1.96 (1.64–2.47)
Anesthesia details
 Epidural use35.1%27.7%
 Use of 2 or more multimodal analgesics for the first 48 h43.6%44.2%
  1. *The case mix index (CMI) is the average relative diagnosis-related group (DRG) weight of a hospital’s inpatient discharges, calculated by summing the Medicare Severity-Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) weight for each discharge and dividing the total by the number of discharges. The CMI reflects the diversity, clinical complexity, and resource needs of all the patients in the hospital