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Table 1 Summary of methods predicting fluid responsiveness

From: Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) consensus statement on fundamental concepts in perioperative fluid management: fluid responsiveness and venous capacitance

Method Threshold (%) Main limitations
Pulse pressure/stroke volume variations (PPV/SVV) (Michard et al., 2000) 12 Cannot be used in case of spontaneous breathing, low tidal volume/lung compliance. Need regular cardiac rhythm
Inferior vena cava diameter variations (Vignon et al., 2017) 12 Cannot be used in case of spontaneous breathing, low tidal volume/lung compliance. Need regular cardiac rhythm
Superior vena cava diameter variations (Vignon et al., 2017) 36 Requires performing transesophageal Doppler. Cannot be used in case of spontaneous breathing, low tidal volume/lung compliance. Need regular cardiac rhythm
Passive leg raising (Monnet et al., 2006) 10 Requires a direct measurement of cardiac output. May be inaccurate in intra-abdominal hypertension
End-expiratory occlusion test (Monnet et al., 2009) 5 Cannot be used in non-intubated patients. Cannot be used in patients who interrupt a 15-second respiratory hold
“Mini” fluid challenge (Muller et al., 2011) 6 Requires a precise technique for measuring cardiac output
“Conventional” fluid challenge (500 mL) (Vincent & Weil, 2006) 15 Requires a direct measurement of cardiac output.
Can induce fluid overload if repeated