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Table 1 Exercise training prescription described using the FITT principle (frequency, intensity, time, type) and progression

From: Compliance, adherence and effectiveness of a community-based pre-operative exercise programme: a pilot study

Frequency3–5 sessions per week depending on the time interval before surgery (i.e. if patients had a 2-week interval, they were advised to undertake 5 sessions per week or > 2 weeks, they were advised to undertake ≥ 3 sessions per week).
Intensity(1) Interval (moderate to high intensity) exercise training: moderate and high intensities, derived based on RPE scale (13: somewhat hard and 15: hard) using the same concept as (West et al. 2014) without the use of CPET to inform intensities.
(2) High-intensity exercise training: derived based on RPE scale (16: hard to very hard) using the same concept as (Boereboom et al. 2016) but without the use of CPET.
(3) Resistance training included performing 3 sets × 12 repetitions. The load was selected based on individual ability (i.e. kg of weight using 12 RM with a minimum 30 s recovery period between each set)
TimeTotal: ranged between 40 to 60 min
“(1) The first interval (moderate to high intensity) exercise session was 30 min: 5-min warm-up followed by 4 repeated bouts of moderate intensity (3 min) to high-intensity (2 min) intervals and 5 min cool down. The second sessions onwards was 40 min: 5-min warm-up followed by 6 repeated bouts of moderate intensity (3 min) to high intensity (2 min) intervals and 5 min cool down.
(2) The high-intensity exercise training was 17.5 min: 2 min warm-up followed by 5 repeated bouts of high intensity (1 min) and recovery (90 s) intervals and a 3 min cool down.”
(3) Resistance training involved completing 3 sets × 12 repetitions (approx. 20 min).
TypeAerobic training, upright cycle ergometer, recumbent cycle ergometer, treadmill, elliptical ergometer and rowing ergometer, depending on patient preference.
Resistance training involved a circuit of strength 8–10 stations alternating upper and lower body exercises using the following machines: shoulder press, lateral pulldown, tricep press, squat, chest press, leg extension, hamstring curl, and back row.
ProgressionExercise intensity (interval/high) was progressed every 5 sessions (i.e. the intensity was increased by 1 level).
Resistance training progressed following completion of 3 consecutive sessions comfortably (i.e. weight was increased by 1 kg).
  1. The aerobic high-intensity training was only prescribed to certain individuals who could tolerate the interval training very well. The aerobic exercise training included interval and high-intensity training, which were alternated between every second sessions
  2. RPE rate of perceived exertion, CPET cardiopulmonary exercise test, RM repetition maximum