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Table 5 Propensity-matched comparison of study patients who did or did not receive HES before or after cardiopulmonary bypass

From: Large volume infusions of hydroxyethyl starch during cardiothoracic surgery may be associated with postoperative kidney injury: propensity-matched analysis

  HES Control Standardized difference
Preoperative parameters    
 Number of patients 481 962  
 Age (years) 65.9 ± 13.2 66.2 ± 12.2 2.74
 Male gender 292 (60.7%) 581 (60.4%) 0.65
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.1 ± 3.8 22.9 ± 3.2 0.49
 Preoperative creatinine (mg/dL) 0.92 ± 0.40 0.93 ± 0.40 2.17
 Emergency 180 (37.4%) 369 (38.4%) −1.99
 Preoperative comorbidities
  Hypertension 289 (60.0%) 587 (61.0%) −1.96
  Diabetes mellitus 68 (14.1%) 142 (14.8%) −2.52
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 12 (2.5%) 23 (2.4%) 2.18
  Chronic heart failure 192 (39.9%) 383 (39.8%) 0.22
  Atrial fibrillation 113 (23.5%) 232 (24.1%) −1.72
 American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification
  1 10 (2.1%) 20 (2.1%)  
  2 296 (61.5%) 553 (57.5%)  
  3 143 (29.7%) 314 (32.6%)  
  4 26 (5.4%) 72 (7.5%)  
  5 6 (1.2%) 3 (0.3%)  
 Preoperative medication
  Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors 82 (17.0%) 170 (17.7%) −2.17
  Angiotensin II receptor blockers 168 (34.9%) 341 (35.4%) −1.14
Intraoperative parameters
 HES (mL) 692 ± 387  
 Hespander® (mL) 14 ± 104   
 Salinhes® (mL) 627 ± 432   
 Voluven® (mL) 50 ± 186   
 Crystalloids (mL) 2524 ± 1627 2553 ± 1129 2.06
 Red blood cells (mL) 457 ± 959 511 ± 858 5.84
 Fresh frozen plasma (mL) 392 ± 628 440 ± 653 7.60
 Platelet concentrates (mL) 102 ± 193 112 ± 192 4.99
 Estimated blood loss (mL) 669 ± 656 715 ± 681 6.82
 Urinary outputs (mL) 1387 ± 884 1391 ± 846 0.48
 Operative time (min) 356 ± 124 364 ± 116 7.16
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min) 170 ± 67 173 ± 61 5.53
 Longest interval of mABP < 65 (min) 66 ± 54 67 ± 53 1.92
 Total mABP < 65 duration (min) 210 ± 107 215 ± 114 5.09
 Operation procedures
  On-pump CABG 8 (1.7%) 14 (1.5%)  
  Valve surgeries 261 (54.3%) 489 (50.8%)  
  Valve + CABG 34 (7.1%) 93 (9.7%)  
  Major aortic surgeries 152 (31.6%) 316 (32.8%)  
  Others 26 (5.4%) 50 (5.2%)  
  1. Data are expressed as means with standard deviation or percentages
  2. HES hydroxyethyl starch, mABP mean atrial blood pressure, CABG coronary artery bypass graft