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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study patients who did or did not receive HES before or after cardiopulmonary bypass

From: Large volume infusions of hydroxyethyl starch during cardiothoracic surgery may be associated with postoperative kidney injury: propensity-matched analysis

  HES Control Standardized difference (%)
Preoperative parameters
 Number of patients 536 1440  
 Age (years) 65.8 ± 13.0 66.9 ± 12.0 − 1.46
 Male gender 338 (63.1%) 782 (54.3%) 18.2
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.7 ± 3.8 23.2 ± 3.8 7.10
 Preoperative serum creatinine (mg/dL) 1.00 ± 0.81 0.92 ± 0.39 − 37.7
 Emergency 202 (37.7%) 527 (36.6%) 2.33
 Preoperative comorbidities
  Hypertension 328 (61.2%) 859 (59.7%) 3.22
  Diabetes mellitus 79 (14.7%) 223 (15.5%) − 2.91
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 12 (2.2%) 31 (2.2%) 2.00
  Chronic heart failure 214 (39.9%) 598 (41.5%) − 3.32
  Atrial fibrillation 130 (24.3%) 320 (22.2%) 5.70
 American Society of Anesthesiologists classification
  1 11 (2.1%) 24 (1.7%)  
  2 329 (61.4%) 779 (54.1%)  
  3 159 (30.0%) 523 (36.3%)  
  4 31 (5.8%) 107 (7.4%)  
  5 6 (1.1%) 7 (0.5%)  
 Preoperative medications
  Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors 105 (19.6%) 210 (14.6%) 17.7
  Angiotensin II receptor blockers 187 (34.9%) 466 (32.4%) 5.67
Intraoperative parameters
 HES (mL) 719 ± 422  
 Hespander® (mL) 15 ± 105   
 Salinhes® (mL) 655 ± 467   
 Voluven® (mL) 49 ± 183   
 Crystalloids (mL) 2549 ± 1611 2559 ± 1090 − 0.00025
 Red blood cells (mL) 547 ± 1074 494 ± 763 0.0123
 Fresh frozen plasma (mL) 486 ± 814 412 ± 592 0.0292
 Platelet concentrates (mL) 119 ± 210 111 ± 190 0.0423
 Autotransfusion (mL) 134 ± 292 76 ± 223 0.174
 Estimated blood loss (mL) 807 ± 889 649 ± 605 0.0547
 Urinary outputs (mL) 1412 ± 880 1338 ± 815 0.0207
 Operative time (min) 372 ± 144 354 ± 110 0.220
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min) 177 ± 79 168 ± 59 0.360
 Longest interval of mABP < 65 (min) 70 ± 57 66 ± 53 0.279
 Total mABP < 65 duration (min) 222 ± 124 211 ± 108 0.160
 Operative procedure
  On-pump CABG 8 (1.5%) 20 (1.4%)  
  Valve surgery 291 (54.3%) 734 (51.0%)  
  Valve + CABG 36 (6.7%) 140 (9.7%)  
  Major aortic surgery 172 (32.1%) 461 (32.0%)  
  Other 29 (5.4%) 85 (5.9%)  
  1. Data are expressed as means with standard deviation or percentages
  2. HES hydroxyethyl starch, mABP mean arterial blood pressure, CABG coronary artery bypass graft