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Table 3 Antibiotic prescribing patterns in four surgical diagnoses groups at surgery departments of the TH and NTH

From: Perioperative antibiotic prescribing in surgery departments of two private sector hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India

  UUTSI LUTSI RASI EASI
TH, N = 563 NTH, N = 1055 TH, N = 1624 NTH, N = 1453 TH, N = 2767 NTH, N = 1240 TH, N = 1435 NTH, N = 1679
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Tetracyclines (J01A), n (% of N) 32 (6) 2 (< 1) 50 (3) 0 233 (8) 6 (< 1) 98 (7) 2 (< 1)
Amphenicols (J01B), n (% of N) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Penicillins (J01C), n (% of N) 17 (3) 42 (4) 77 (5) 80 (6) 219 (8) 80 (6) 131 (9) 147 (9)
 Penicillins with extended spectrum (J01CA), x (% of n) 3 (18) 2 (5) 5 (6) 4 (5) 21 (10) 16 (20) 0 10 (7)
 Penicillins combinations including enzyme inhibitors (J01CR), x (% of n) 14 (82) 40 (95) 72 (94) 76 (95) 198 (90) 64 (80) 131 (100) 137 (93)
Other beta-lactam antibiotics (J01D), n (% of N) 70 (12) 239 (23) 220 (14) 191 (13) 535 (19) 332 (27) 218 (15) 296 (18)
 First-generation cephalosporins J01DB, x (% of n) 19 (27) 7 (3) 49 (22) 1 (< 1) 149 (28) 17 (5) 50 (23) 11 (4)
 Second-generation cephalosporins J01 DC, x (% of n) 0 9 (4) 13 (6) 24 (13) 23 (4) 41 (12) 5 (2) 29 (10)
 Third-generation cephalosporins J01DD, x (% of n) 51 (72) 222 (93) 158 (72) 166 (87) 363 (68) 272 (82) 162 (74) 254 (86)
 Fourth-generation cephalosporins J01DE, x (% of n) 0 1 (< 1) 0 0 0 1 (< 1) 0 0
 Carbapenems J01DH, x (% of n) 0 0 0 0 0 1 (< 1) 1 (< 1) 2 (< 1)
Sulfonamids and trimethoprim (J01E), n (% of N) 11 (2) 0 85 (5) 0 100 (4) 0 16 (1) 0
Macrolids and lincosamids (J01F), n (% of N) 38 (7) 0 180 (11) 2 (< 1) 405 (15) 3 (< 1) 94 (7) 8 (< 1)
 Macrolids (J01FA), x (% of n) 0 0 4 (2) 0 3 (< 1) 0 1 (1) 0
 Lincosamids (J01FF), x (% of n) 38 (100) 0 176 (98) 2 (100) 402 (99) 3 93 (99) 8 (100)
Aminoglycosides (J01G), n (% of N) 76 (13) 269 (26) 328 (20) 449 (31) 486 (18) 250 (20) 189 (13) 225(13)
Quinolones (J01 M), n (% of N) 216 (38) 281 (27) 609 (38) 543 (37) 315 (11) 114 (9) 263 (18) 145 (9)
Fixed-dose combinations (J01R), n (% of N) 3 (1) 160 (15) 22 (1) 155 (11) 37 (1) 298 (24) 17 (1) 399 (24)
 Quinolones and imidazole derivatives*, x (% of n) 0 2 (1) 0 17 (11) 0 26 (9) 0 22 (6)
 Cephalosporins and enzyme inhibitors, x (% of n) 3 (100) 158 (99) 22 (100) 138 (89) 37 272 (91) 17 (100) 377 (94)
Other antibiotics (J01X), n (% of N) 100 (18) 62 (6) 53 (3) 33 (2) 437 (16) 157 (13) 408 (28) 457 (27)
 Imidazole derivatives (J01XD)**, x (% of n) 100 (100) 62 (97) 53 (100) 31 (94) 437 (100) 157 (100) 408 (100) 453 (99)
 Other antibiotics (J01XX), x (% of n) 0 2 (3) 0 2 (6) 0 0 0 4 (1)
  1. EASI emergency abdominal surgery indications, LUTSI lower urinary tract surgery indications, N total number of prescriptions in the diagnosis group, n number of prescriptions for the third-level ATC pharmacological sub-group, RASI routine abdominal surgery indications, UUTSI upper urinary tract surgery indications, x number of prescriptions for the fourth-level ATC pharmacological sub-group. Percentages were rounded and presented in parenthesis
  2. *Fixed-dose combinations that were not assigned by WHOCC, a fourth level ATC-code
  3. **The imidazole derivate group also included oral metronidazole categorized as P01AB01