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Table 5 Outcomes

From: Impact of an enhanced recovery pathway on length of stay and complications in elective radical cystectomy: a before and after cohort study

  Historical controls (N = 100) ERAS patients (N = 100) p value
Length of stay
 Median length of stay (days) 10 (8,18) 7 (6,11) < 0.00011
 Mean length of stay (days) 14.86 (11.05) 10.00 (7.03) < 0.0011
Recovery milestones
 Postoperative days to end IV 6.73 (7.67) 4.53 (4.40) 0.2531
 Days to end IV ≥ 1 63 (63.00%) 77 (77.00%) 0.0312
 Postoperative days to first stool 5.83 (3.83) 3.99 (1.93) < 0.0011
 Postoperative days to first liquid 5.05 (6.71) 1.09 (1.34) < 0.0011
 Postoperative days to first solid food 9.68 (8.79) 3.20 (2.52) < 0.0011
 Postoperative days to self-stoma management 10.11 (7.52) 8.88 (20.45) < 0.0011
 Postoperative TPN 32 (32.00%) 21 (21.00%) 0.0782
 Postoperative days to end TPN 16.56 (7.72) 11.19 (6.93) 0.0091
 Postoperative days to first on feet 1.98 (1.15) 1.25 (0.79) < 0.0011
Opioids use and pain scores
 Intravenous opioids (total morphine equivalents)
  DOS 10.76 (30.72) 0.91 (6.05) < 0.0011
  POD1 36.09 (84.40) 8.66 (44.27) < 0.0011
  POD2 51.06 (122.05) 10.30 (55.44) < 0.0011
  POD3 50.17 (118.82) 7.51 (40.32) < 0.0011
  POD4 48.14 (116.83) 5.55 (34.69) < 0.0011
  POD5 38.21 (95.86) 1.94 (17.63) < 0.0011
  Total 234.45 (458.07) 34.87 (159.47) < 0.0011
 Maximum pain score
  DOS 3.49 (3.60) 3.27 (3.44) 0.7111
  POD1 5.16 (3.23) 3.91 (3.13) 0.0061
  POD2 4.40 (2.97) 3.60 (3.16) 0.0491
  POD3 3.85 (2.98) 3.39 (2.84) 0.3061
  POD4 4.01 (2.92) 3.79 (3.05) 0.6421
  POD5 4.33 (3.08) 3.80 (3.23) 0.2391
  Total 6.95 (2.67) 6.60 (2.76) 0.3361
Adverse events
 Readmission within 30 days 38 (38.00%) 19 (20.00%) 0.0062
 Re-operation within 30 days 15 (15.31%) 9 (9.00%) 0.1742
 Adverse event(s) at all during primary stay 87 (87.88%) 76 (76.00%) 0.0302
 Complications during admission
  Respiratory 20 (20.00%) 17 (17.00%) 0.5852
  Infectious 34 (34.00%) 20 (20.20%) 0.0292
  Cardiovascular 25 (25.00%) 21 (21.00%) 0.5022
  Postoperative ileus 65 (65.00%) 36 (36.73%) < 0.0012
  Surgical complication(s) 23 (23.23%) 15 (15.00%) 0.1402
  Delirium 12 (12.37%) 2 (2.06%) 0.0062
  PONV 72 (72.00%) 67 (67.68%) 0.5062
 Requiring intensive care 10 (10.00%) 5 (5.00%) 0.1792
 30 day mortality 2 (2.00%) 2 (2.00%) 0.9992
  1. Length of stay reported as both median (IQR) and mean (SD). Median may be more representative due to outliers and non-parametric nature of outcome. Other continuous variables reported as mean (SD); categorical variables reported as frequency (percentage)
  2. Respiratory complications include atelectasis, pneumonia, pleural fluid, respiratory failure, pneumothorax, and other unspecified
  3. Infectious complications include wound infection, urinary tract infection, intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal abscess, sepsis, septic shock, and other unspecified
  4. Cardiovascular complications include heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and other unspecified
  5. Surgical complications include anastomotic leak, urinary leakage, urinary tract injury, mechanical bowl obstruction, deep wound dehiscence, peritoneal soiling, and other unspecified
  6. TPN total parenteral nutrition; postoperative days to end TPN measured among those who received postoperative TPN. PONV postoperative nausea or vomiting
  7. 1Wilcoxon
  8. 2Chi-Square