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Table 1 Perioperative characteristics of Caucasian and non-Caucasian children who had undergone abdominal/pelvic tumor resection

From: A retrospective evaluation of the impact of patient ethnicity on the use of epidural analgesia or blood transfusions in children undergoing major oncologic surgery

Variable (mean ± standard deviation) Non-Caucasian (n = 59) Caucasian (n = 80) Difference in mean (95% CI) p value Entire study population (n = 139)
Age, years 9.7 ± 5.0 12.3 ± 5.0 − 2.6 (− 4.3, − 0.9) 0.003 11.2 ± 5.1
Gender, n (%)     0.659  
 Female 28 (47) 41 (51)    69 (50)
 Male 31 (53) 39 (49)    70 (50)
 ASA, n (%)     0.085  
3 or 4 46 (78) 71 (89)    117 (84)
 Body mass index 19 ± 4 20 ± 6 − 1 (− 3, 0) 0.083 20 ± 5
 Preoperative opioid use, n (%) 7 (12) 26 (33)   0.005 33 (24)
Baseline laboratory values
 Hemoglobin, mg/dL 11.0 ± 2.6 11.1 ± 1.7 − 0.1 (− 0.8, 0.7) 0.880 11.1 ± 2.1
 Albumin, mg/dL 4.1 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.4 0 (− 0.2, 0.2) 0.907 4.1 ± 0.5
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.5 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.4 − 0.1 (− 0.2, 0.0) 0.108 0.6 ± 0.3
 Platelet count, K/μL 255 ± 144 235 ± 143 20 (− 29, 69) 0.424 244 ± 143
 PT, s 14.1 ± 1.4 13.9 ± 1.1 0.2 (− 0.3, 0.7) 0.397 14.0 ± 1.2
 PTT, s 36.9 ± 12.5 34.4 ± 11.7 2.5 (− 1.9, 6.9) 0.251 35.4 ± 12.1
 Abnormal coagulation or platelets, n (%) 25 (42) 25 (31)   0.177 50 (36)
Surgical procedures, n (%)
 Abdominal 10 (17) 9 (11)   0.023 19 (14)
 Pelvic 8 (14) 4 (5)    12 (9)
 Abdomino-pelvic 29 (49) 59 (74)    88 (63)
 Retroperitoneal 12 (20) 8 (10)    20 (14)
 Anesthesia duration, min 552 ± 282 686 ± 278 − 134 (− 230, − 39) 0.006 629 ± 289
 Epidural analgesia, n (%) 39 (66) 65 (81)   0.042 104 (75)
 Intraoperative opioids, MED 2.1 ± 2.1 2.1 ± 1.8 0 (− 0.7, 0.7) 0.768 2.1 ± 1.9
 Estimated blood loss, ml/kg 13 ± 19 16 ± 26 − 3 (− 11, 4) 0.401 15 ± 24
Transfusions
 Crystalloid, ml/kg 54 ± 41 67 ± 40 − 13 (− 27, 1) 0.059 61 ± 41
 Colloid, ml/kg 20 ± 21 29 ± 22 − 9 (− 16, − 2) 0.013 25 ± 22
 Blood/blood products, n (%) 28 (48) 52 (65)   0.039 80 (58)
 Postop hemoglobin, mg/dL 11.2 ± 1.8 11.3 ± 1.7 − 0.1 (− 0.7, 0.5) 0.720 11.2 ± 1.8
 Pain score postop day 1 1.6 ± 1.7 1.9 ± 1.8 − 0.3 (− 0.9, 0.3) 0.398 1.8 ± 1.8
 High-grade complications, n (%) 10 (17) 10 (13)   0.460 20 (14)
 Length of stay, days 12.6 ± 14.5 12.3 ± 7.1 0.3 (− 3.8, 4.4) 0.878 12 ± 11
 S30-day readmissions, n (%) 8 (14) 14 (18)   0.529 22 (16)
  1. T test was used for the continuous variables. Fisher’s exact test or chi-square test was used for the categorical variables. n (%) number of patients (percentage of a subgroup), ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score, PT prothrombin time, PTT partial thromboplastin time, MED morphine dose equivalents