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Table 4 Postoperative data

From: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program for lumbar spine fusion

  Pre-ERAS (n = 123) Post-ERAS (n = 96) *p value
PACU temperature on arrival 35.8 (5.1) 36.5 (0.4) 0.4443
Antiemetic given in PACU 49 (39.8%) 23 (24.0%) 0.0125
Methocarbamol 1500 mg given in PACU 54 (43.9%) 59 (61.5%) 0.0137
NPRS before PACU discharge 50.0 (22.3) 43.7 (23.9) 0.0925
Total patients with PCA 115 (93.5%) 91 (94.8%) 0.7803
 • Morphine, # (% of total PCA) 56 (45.5%) 38 (39.6%) 0.4209
 • Hydromorphone, # (% of total PCA) 55 (44.7%) 51 (53.1%) 0.2236
 • Fentanyl, # (% of total PCA) 5 (4.1%) 2 (2.1%) 0.4634
PCA duration≥ 24 h 9 (7.3%)   0.0116
Urinary catheter duration ≥ 24 h 42 (34.1%) 30 (31.3%) 0.6565
Day of surgery medications given
 • NSAIDs 4 (3.3%) 10 (10.4%) 0.0533
 • Opioids, short-acting (immediate-release) 123 (100.0%) 95 (99.0%) 0.4343
 • Opioids, long-acting (extended-release, e.g., OxyContin, MSContin, Methadone) 6 (4.9%)   0.0345
 • Anticonvulsants 22 (17.9%) 55 (57.3%) <.0001
 • Antidepressants 8 (6.5%) 5 (5.2%) 0.7788
 • Benzodiazepines 19 (15.4%) 16 (16.7%) 0.8518
 • Muscle relaxants 97 (78.9%) 83 (86.5%) 0.1603
 • Acetaminophen 62 (50.4%) 45 (46.9%) 0.6868
Postoperative day #1 NPRS pain scores
 • Minimum pain score 10.8 (16.0) 15.3 (17.0) 0.0249
 • Maximum pain score 75.0 (19.4) 75.8 (18.4) 0.791
Postoperative day #1 medications given
 • NSAIDs 6 (4.9%) 11 (11.5%) 0.0777
 • Opioids, short-acting (immediate-release) 119 (96.7%) 92 (95.8%) 1.0000
 • Opioids, long-acting (extended-release, e.g., OxyContin, MSContin, Methadone) 23 (18.7%) 5 (5.2%) 0.0028
 • Anticonvulsants 30 (24.4%) 71 (74.0%) <.0001
 • Antidepressants 20 (16.3%) 10 (10.4%) 0.2312
 • Benzodiazepines 35 (28.5%) 33 (34.4%) 0.3779
 • Muscle relaxants 113 (91.9%) 87 (90.6%) 0.8096
 • Acetaminophen 98 (79.7%) 86 (89.6%) 0.0620
Postoperative day #2 NPRS pain scores
 • Minimum pain score 6.9 (12.1) 15.3 (18.9) 0.0003
 • Maximum pain score 73.5 (18.9) 74.8 (19.7) 0.5559
Postoperative day #2 medications given (for patients not yet discharged)
 • NSAIDs 7 (5.7%) 9 (9.4%) 0.4352
 • Opioids, short-acting (immediate-release) 111 (90.2%) 83 (86.5%) 0.4063
 • Opioids, long acting (extended-release, e.g., OxyContin, MSContin, Methadone) 28 (22.8%) 5 (5.2%) 0.0002
 • Anticonvulsants 30 (24.4%) 66 (68.8%) <.0001
 • Antidepressants 22 (17.9%) 10 (10.4%) 0.1311
 • Benzodiazepines 34 (27.6%) 29 (30.2%) 0.7643
 • Muscle relaxants 112 (91.1%) 86 (89.6%) 0.8108
 • Acetaminophen 94 (76.4%) 82 (85.4%) 0.1236
Postoperative day #3 NPRS pain scores
 • Minimum pain score 8.9 (14.0) 15.6 (19.1) 0.0158
 • Maximum pain score 69.1 (22.6) 68.0 (21.4) 0.499
Postoperative day #3 medications given (for patients not yet discharged)
 • NSAIDs 7 (5.7%) 7 (7.3%) 0.7846
 • Opioids, short-acting (immediate-release) 91 (74.0%) 65 (67.7%) 0.3713
 • Opioids, long-acting (extended-release, e.g., OxyContin, MSContin, Methadone) 22 (17.9%) 4 (4.2%) 0.0020
 • Anticonvulsants 29 (23.6%) 52 (54.2%) 0.0001
 • Antidepressants 16 (13.0%) 6 (6.3%) 0.1114
 • Benzodiazepines 24 (19.5%) 18 (18.8%) 1.0000
 • Muscle relaxants 97 (78.9%) 66 (68.8%) 0.1208
 • Acetaminophen 63 (51.2%) 54 (56.3%) 0.4919
Postoperative day patient out of bed 2.2 (0.4) 2.3 (0.6) 0.4102
Postoperative day patient seen by PT 2.2 (0.4) 2.2 (0.5) 0.6943
Postoperative complications
 • Reintubation 2 (1.6%) 1 (1.0%) 1.0000
 • MI    
 • Death    
 • Rapid response   2 (2.1%) 0.1928
 • Other   4 (4.2%) 0.0355
Length of stay (hours) 96.2 (32.0) 92.3 (36.9) 0.1372