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Table 2 Demographic and co-morbidities

From: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program for lumbar spine fusion

  Pre-ERAS (n = 123) Post-ERAS (n = 96) *p value
Number of patients 123 96  
Gender, # and % male 53 (43.1%) 48 (50.0%) 0.3395
Age 60.3 (12.9) 61.3 (13.3) 0.7308
BMI 29.7 (5.5) 29.7 (4.8) 0.7783
Coronary artery disease, #(%) 15 (12.2%) 10 (10.4%) 0.8286
Hypertension, #(%) 68 (55.3%) 50 (52.1%) 0.6715
Asthma, #(%) 13 (10.6%) 7 (7.3%) 0.4834
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, #(%) 8 (6.5%) 7 (7.3%) 1.0000
Diabetes mellitus—non-insulin dependent, #(%) 9 (7.3%) 15 (15.6%) 0.0794
Diabetes mellitus—insulin dependent, #(%) 4 (3.3%) 2 (2.1%) 0.7009
History of cerebrovascular accident, #(%) 4 (3.3%) 5 (5.2%) 0.5096
Anxiety, #(%) 22 (17.9%) 17 (17.7%) 1.0000
Depression, #(%) 18 (14.6%) 10 (10.4%) 0.4078
Kidney disease, #(%) 10 (8.1%) 4 (4.2%) 0.2775
Liver disease, #(%)   2 (2.1%) 0.1926
Obstructive sleep apnea, #(%) 16 (13.0%) 4 (4.2%) 0.0326
Alcohol abuse, #(%) 2 (1.6%)   0.5024
Tobacco abuse, #(%)
 • Yes, NOT within the last 6 months 39 (31.7%) 41 (42.7%) 0.1199
 • Yes, within the last 6 months 25 (20.3%) 15 (15.6%) 0.3850
Substance abuse, #(%)
 • Yes, NOT within the last 6 months 2 (1.6%) 4 (4.2%) 0.4307
 • Yes, within the last 6 months 3 (2.4%) 2 (2.1%) 1.0000
ASA PS class ≥ 3 63 (51.2%) 50 (52.1%) 1.0000
Non-surgical treatments utilized
 • Physical therapy 51 (41.5%) 23 (24.0%) 0.0104
 • Acupuncture 17 (13.8%) 8 (8.3%) 0.2928
 • Chiropractic 27 (22.0%) 14 (14.6%) 0.2222
 • Epidural or facet injections 78 (63.4%) 51 (53.1%) 0.1310
Preoperative pain medication (last 30 days)
 • NSAIDs 76 (61.8%) 48 (50.0%) 0.0992
 • Opioids, short-acting (immediate-release) 57 (46.3%) 47 (49.0%) 0.7852
 • Opioids, long-acting (extended-release, e.g., OxyContin, MSContin, Methadone) 4 (3.3%) 2 (2.1%) 0.7021
 • Anticonvulsants 30 (24.4%) 29 (30.2%) 0.3720
 • Antidepressants 31 (25.2%) 29 (30.2%) 0.4464
 • Benzodiazepines 18 (14.6%) 12 (12.5%) 0.6964
 • Muscle relaxants 24 (19.5%) 11 (11.5%) 0.1350
 • Acetaminophen 42 (34.1%) 34 (35.4%) 0.8826