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Table 1 Demographic and perioperative characteristics of albumin-exposed and non-exposed patients before and after matching with respect to absolute standardized difference

From: Acute kidney injury in postoperative shock: is hyperoncotic albumin administration an unrecognized resuscitation risk factor?

Variable All patients Matched patients
Albumin (N = 4669) Control (N = 6843) ASD* Albumin (N = 3600) Control (N = 3600) ASD*
Age, years 67 ± 13 63 ± 15 0.238 66 ± 13 66 ± 13 0.015
Gender (male), no. (%) 2882 (62) 4203 (61) 0.006 2239 (62) 2269 (63) 0.017
Race    0.087    0.018
 Caucasian 4197 (90) 6000 (88)   3220 (89) 3239 (90)  
 African American 256 (5) 522 (8)   198 (6) 185 (5)  
 Others 216 (5) 321 (5)   182 (5) 176 (5)  
Body mass index, kg/m2 28.4 ± 6.5 29.1 ± 7.0 0.108 28.6 ± 6.3 28.6 ± 6.3 0.014
ASA physical status, no. (%)    0.274    0.067
 I 18 (0) 46 (1)   11 (0) 5 (0)  
 II 79 (2) 271 (4)   51 (1) 45 (1)  
 III 985 (21) 2083 (30)   755 (21) 672 (19)  
 IV 3587 (77) 4443 (65)   2783 (77) 2878 (80)  
Emergent surgery, no. (%) 198 (4) 433 (6) 0.094 151 (4) 139 (4) 0.017
Type of surgery , no. (%)      0.000
 Replacement of aortic valve 1318 (37.5) 1495 (37.3)   1120 (37.3) 1120 (37.3)  
 CABG artery-vein single 750 (21.4) 714 (17.8)   621 (20.7) 621 (20.7)  
 Replacement of mitral valve 420 (12.0) 448 (11.2)   391 (13.0) 391 (13.0)  
 Repair of mitral valve 343 (9.8) 411 (10.3)   283 (9.4) 283 (9.4)  
 Ascending aortic graft 287 (8.2) 234 (5.8)   225 (7.5) 225 (7.5)  
 Revise ventricular muscle 108 (3.1) 201 (5.0)   96 (3.2) 96 (3.2)  
 Transplantation of liver 75 (2.1) 192 (4.8)   73 (2.4) 73 (2.4)  
 Exploration of abdomen 100 (2.9) 133 (3.3)   108 (3.6) 108 (3.6)  
 Repair of mitral valve 84 (2.4) 74 (1.9)   61 (2.0) 61 (2.0)  
 CABG arterial single 27 (0.8) 106 (2.6)   25 (0.8) 25 (0.8)  
Duration of surgery, (h) 7.0 ± 2.4 6.5 ± 2.6 0.198 6.9 ± 2.1 6.8 ± 2.1 0.042
Intraoperative time-weighted average of MAP, mmHg 75.4 ± 6.6 77.4 ± 8.3 0.269 75.3 ± 6.1 75.1 ± 6.3 0.006
Use of hydroxyethyl starch, no. (%) 2326 (50) 3524 (52) 0.034 1854 (52) 2088 (58) 0.131
Use of furosemide, no. (%) 224 (5) 179 (3) 0.116 112 (3) 87 (2) 0.042
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologist, ASD absolute standardized difference, MAP mean arterial blood pressure, TWA time-weighted average
  2. *ASD absolute difference in means or proportions divided by the pooled standard deviation; imbalance was defined as an ASD greater than 0.046 (i.e., \( 1.96\times \sqrt{\frac{1}{3600}+\frac{1}{3600}} \))
  3. Ten most frequent procedures are listed