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Table 2 Summary of differences in serum biochemistry between non-buffered and buffered fluid groups

From: Perioperative administration of buffered versus non-buffered crystalloid intravenous fluid to improve outcomes following adult surgical procedures: a Cochrane systematic review

Outcomes Absolute effects No. of participants (studies) p
Outcome with non-buffered fluid (mean) Outcome with buffered fluid (mean; mean difference with 95% CI)
PaCO2 35.0 mmHg 34.9 mmHg (MD 1 mmHg higher; 95% CI 0.15 to 1.94) 446 (7 RCTs) 0.02
Postoperative pH 7.32 7.38 (MD 0.05 units higher; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.07) 720 (12 RCTs) < 0.0001
Base excess − 5.0 − 1.65 (MD 3.5 units higher; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.4) 459 (9 RCTs) < 0.0001
Serum bicarbonate 18.6 mmol/L 21.6 mmol/L (MD 3.14 mmol/L; 95% CI 2.3 to 4.0) 478 (8 RCTs) < 0.0001
Serum sodium—postoperative 139.4 mmol/L 137.3 mmol/L (MD 0.52 mmol/ L higher; 95% CI − 2.8 to − 1.7) 447 (8 RCTs) < 0.0001
Serum sodium—postoperative day 1 141.8 mmol/L 140.6 mmol/L (MD 0.52 mmol/ L higher; 95% CI − 2.8 to −1.7) 91 (2 RCTs) 0.07
Serum potassium 4.22 mmol/L 4.13 mmol/L (MD 0.04 mmol/ L lower; 95% CI − 0.14 to 0.06) 459 (7 RCTs) 0.43
Serum chloride—postoperative 114.3 mmol/L 107.5 mmol/L (MD 6.77 mmol/ L lower; 95% CI − 3.38 to −10.17) 530 (10 RCTs) 0.0001
Serum chloride—postoperative day 1 114.4 mmol/L 105.7 mmol/L (MD 8.48 mmol/ L lower; 95% CI − 15.88 to −1.08) 258 (5 RCTs) 0.02
Serum glucose 6.0 mmol/L 6.0 mmol/L (MD no difference; 95% CI − 0.29 to 0.29) 145 (3 RCTs) 0.99
Serum lactate 1.6 mmol/L 2.3 mmol/L (MD 0.52 mmol/ L higher; 95% CI − 0.04 to 1.1) 199 (4 RCTs) 0.067
Serum calcium 1.6 mmol/L 2.0 mmol/L 47 (1 RCT) 0.0001