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Table 2 Characteristic analysis of the categorical risk factors associated with post-extubation negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE)

From: Characterizing post-extubation negative pressure pulmonary edema in the operating room—a retrospective matched case-control study

Categorical variables Case (n = 16) Matched controls (n = 131) P value
n % n %
Male 10 62.5 61 46.6 < 0.001*
ASA PS 0.174
 I–II 14 87.5 101 77.1  
 III–IV 2 12.5 30 22.9  
Emergency operation
 Yes 4 25.0 16 12.2 0.003*
Anesthetic technique < 0.001*
 ETGA 14 87.5 85 64.9  
 LMA 2 12.5 46 35.1  
Difficult airway
 Yes 0 0 17 13.0 < 0.001*
Type of inhaled anesthetic 0.016*
 Desflurane 5 31.3 18 13.7  
 Sevoflurane 11 68.7 107 81.7  
Active smoker
 Yes 9 56.3 26 20.0 < 0.001*
  1. ASA PS American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status, ETGA endotracheal tube general anesthesia, LMA laryngeal mask anesthesia. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and are shown as number (percent). *P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant