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Table 1 Descriptive statistics (N, %) for the total sample and those with and without three or more opioid prescriptions (p value compares these two groups)

From: Predictors of chronic prescription opioid use after orthopedic surgery: derivation of a clinical prediction rule.

Variable Total sample (N = 1642) Individuals with 3 or more prescriptions for opioids (N = 580) Individuals with less than 3 or no prescriptions for opioids (N = 1062) P value Individuals still receiving opioid prescriptions after 1 year (N = 755) Individuals not receiving opioid prescriptions after 1 year (N = 887) P value
Age (SD) 32.45 (8.18) 31.37 (7.74) 32.85 (8.39) < 0.01* 32.9 (8.5) 31.9 (7.8) < 0.01*
Sex—female 754 (45.9) 298 (51.4) 456 (42.9) < 0.01* 388 (51.4) 366 (41.3) < 0.01*
Active duty family (service or family member 1108 (67.5) 387 (66.7) 721 (67.9) 0.63 523 (69.3) 585 (66.0) 0.15
Service
 Army 783 (47.7) 290 (50.0) 435 (41.0) < 0.01* 351 (46.5) 374 (42.3) 0.29
 Coast Guard 29 (1.8) 7 (1.2) 22 (2.1) 11 (1.5) 18 (2.0)
 Air Force 448 (27.3) 134 (23.1) 280 (26.4) 187 (24.8) 227 (25.6)
 Marine Corps 214 (13.0) 65 (11.2) 129 (12.1) 83 (11.0) 111 (12.5)
 Navy 288 (17.5) 84 (14.5) 187 (17.6) 122 (16.2) 149 (16.8)
 Other 8 (0.5) 0 7 (0.5) 1 6 (0.5)
Socioeconomic status < 0.01*   < 0.01*
 Junior enlisted 390 (23.8) 182 (31.4) 208 (19.6) 202 (26.8) 188 (21.2)
 Senior enlisted 842 (51.3) 305 (52.6) 537 (50.7) 418 (55.4) 424 (47.8)
 Junior officer 200 (12.2) 54 (9.3) 146 (13.7) 71 (9.4) 129 (14.5)
 Senior officer 192 (11.7) 39 (6.7) 153 (14.4) 64 (8.5) 128 (14.4)
 Unknown 18 (1.1) 0 18 (1.7) 0 18 (2.0)
Military hospital [versus civilian] 837 (51.0) 293 (50.5) 544 (51.2) 0.78 373 (49.4) 464 (52.3) 0.24
Total medical care within 2 years after surgery (SD)
 Mean medical visits 80.94 (67.13) 119.58 (86.50) 59.83 (40.31) < 0.01* 105.1 (80.0) 60.4 (44.6) < 0.01*
 Mean medical costs $25,380 ($24,604) $36,199 ($32,372) $19,471 ($16,292) < 0.01* $32,140 ($28,778) $19,626 ($18,555) < 0.01*
 Mean hip-related medical visits 24.41 (22.31) 32.42 (28.31) 20.04 (17.56) < 0.01* 29.0 (25.7) 20.5 (18.1) < 0.01*
 Mean hip-related medical costs $13,185 ($14,187) $15,665 ($16,119) $11,831 ($12,819) < 0.01* $14,546 ($15,639) $12,027 ($12,717) < 0.01*
Individuals with a prescription prior to surgery 662 (40.3) 294 (50.7) 368 (34.7) < 0.01* 399 (52.8) 416 (46.9) 0.02*
Opioid prescription use after (SD)
 Mean unique prescriptions 5.0 (9.1) 10.3 (12.8) 1.5 (0.9) < 0.01* 8.4 (12.1) 1.6 (18.1) < 0.01*
 Median unique prescriptions 2.0 6.0 1.0 < 0.01* 5.0 1.0 < 0.01*
 Mean total days’ supply 43.0 (137.1) 93.7 (208.2) 10.1 (12.2) < 0.01* 76.3 (189.8) 10.3 (18.1) < 0.01*
 Median total days’ supply 10.0 35.0 7.0 < 0.01* 23.0 5.0 < 0.01*
  1. N (%) unless otherwise indicated
  2. SD standard deviation, MTF military treatment facility, Network non-military medical facility, *Significant P < 0.05