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Table 2 Crude and adjusted risk ratios for the Association of Surgical Specialty and Preoperative Consultation within 42 days

From: Surgical specialty and preoperative medical consultation based on commercial health insurance claims

  Unadjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval)
Surgical specialty (Ref: general surgery)
 Gynecology 0.6 (0.3, 1.2)
 Urology 2.4 (0.7, 8.0)
 Ophthalmology 1.8 (0.9, 3.8)
 Orthopedics 3.4 (1.9, 6.2)
 Neurosurgery 3.4 (1.5, 7.6)
 Otolaryngology 0.8 (0.3, 2.0)
 Vascular 2.8 (1.3, 5.9)
  Adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval)
Surgical specialty (Ref: general surgery)
 Gynecology 0.6 (0.3, 1.2)
 Urology 1.9 (0.8, 4.9)
 Ophthalmology 2.3 (1.1, 4.6)
 Orthopedics 3.9 (2.4, 6.5)
 Neurosurgery 2.3 (1.1, 4.5)
 Otolaryngology 0.6 (0.3, 1.4)
 Vascular 1.4 (0.7, 2.9)
Low surgical risk (Ref: intermediate and high risk) 0.3 (0.3, 0.5)
Age (10-year change) 1.2 (1.1, 1.4)
Sex (Ref: male)  
 Female 1.0 (0.9, 1.2)
Deyo comorbidity score (Ref: 0)
 1 1.4 (1.1, 1.7)
 2 1.7 (1.3, 2.1)
 3+ 1.4 (1.1, 1.9)
Rural Urban Commuting Area category (Ref: urban)
 Large rural city 0.8 (0.5, 1.2)
 Small rural town 1.6 (1.2, 2.1)
 Isolated rural town 0.8 (0.5, 1.3)
Hospital referral region (Ref: Seattle)
 Everett, WA 0.8 (0.5, 1.3)
 Olympia, WA 0.2 (0.1, 0.4)
 Spokane, WA 0.7 (0.6, 1.0)
 Tacoma, WA 0.4 (0.2, 0.7)
 Yakima, WA 0.6 (0.4, 0.9)
 Portland, OR 0.3 (0.2, 0.5)
  1. Significant findings at p < 0.05 are in italics