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Table 2 Reasons for replacing epidural analgesia with intravenous analgesia with an intravenous patient-controlled morphine infusion

From: Pre- to postoperative coagulation profile of 307 patients undergoing oesophageal resection with epidural blockade over a 10-year period in a single hospital: implications for the risk of spinal haematoma

Inadequate analgesia provided by epidural catheter 23
Unclear from patient notes 7
Accidental withdrawal of the catheter 7
Elective transition from epidural to IV-PCA 6
Leakage around the catheter 2
Suspected infection around the catheter 2
‘Sudden chest pain’, epidural catheter presumably withdrawn before antiplatelet drugs 1