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Table 2 Unadjusted renal outcomes in patients treated with ERP vs. traditional care

From: Enhanced recovery protocols for colorectal surgery and postoperative renal function: a retrospective review

  Control (N = 464) ERP (N = 590) All patients (N = 1054) p value
Preoperative creatinine (mg/dL, median [IQR]) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.0) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.002
Max postoperative creatinine (mg/dL, median [IQR]) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.008
Creatinine differences (mg/dL) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.1 (0.0–0.3) 0.1 (0.0–0.2) < 0.001
Level of postoperative kidney injury     0.998
No kidney injury 95.5% (443) 95.4% (563) 95.4% (1006)  
Acute kidney injury (2× increase) 3.7% (17) 3.7% (22) 3.7% (39)  
Acute kidney failure (3× increase) 0.9% (4) 0.8% (5) 0.9% (9)  
  1. Acute kidney injury and failure thresholds set at 2× and 3× increase in creatinine, based on RIFLE criteria cutoffs. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare creatinine ranges; Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare incidences of kidney injury and failure
  2. ERP enhanced recovery protocol, IQR interquartile range