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Table 4 Selected factors and adjusted odds ratios for postoperative pulmonary complications

From: Postoperative pulmonary complications following major elective abdominal surgery: a cohort study

  OR (95 % CI) p value
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 16.77 (2.56–109.88) 0.003
Cancer operation 5.13 (0.41–62.5) 0.205
Nasogastric tube 2.15 (0.33–4.01) 0.411
Duration of surgery 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.007
Elective critical care admission 4.45 (0.45–43.75) 0.200
Analgesia use in the first 24 h
 Epidural Reference  
 Patient controlled analgesia 0.83 (0.05–15.26) 0.898
 Wound catheter 3.05 (0.40–22.98) 0.279
 Oral analgesia only 2.56 (0.23–10.54) 0.636
Change in analgesia strategy in the first 24 h 0.24 (0.02–2.70) 0.247
Incentive spirometer 2.93 (0.12–23.83) 0.782