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Table 3 Effect of perioperative variables on PPC

From: Postoperative pulmonary complications following major elective abdominal surgery: a cohort study

  PPC No. (%) Yes (%)  
n 236 32  
Age (years, IQR) 67 (53–76) 60 (57–67) 0.404
Gender    0.647
 Male 145 (61.4) 21 (65.6)
 Female 91 (38.6) 11 (34.4)
Body mass index (kilograms/metres2, IQR) 27.3 (23.8–30.5) 27.1 (25.6–29.9) 0.742
American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system    0.244
 1 50 (21.2) 3 (9.4)
 2 119 (50.4) 13 (40.6)
 3 58 (24.7) 12 (37.6)
 4 6 (2.5) 2 (6.2)
 Unknown 3 (1.2) 2 (6.2)
Current smoker 36 (15.3) 6 (18.8) 0.662
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 22 (9.3) 8 (25.0) 0.009
Previous cerebrovascular accident 21 (8.9) 2 (6.3) 0.603
Urea (milligrams per decilitre, IQR) 5.6 (4.5–7.3) 5.4 (4.0–9.4) 0.886
Proton pump inhibitor 80 (33.9) 9 (28.1) 0.515
Steroids 13 (5.5) 3 (9.4) 0.390
Cancer operation 67 (28.4) 15 (46.9) 0.035
Type of operation    0.270
 Gastric 24 (10.2) 4 (12.5)
 Hepatobiliary/pancreatic 17 (7.2) 2 (6.3)
 Small bowel 12 (5.1) 1 (3.1)
 Colorectal 66 (28.0) 10 (31.3)
 Urological 55 (23.3) 2 (6.3)
 Vascular 52 (22.0) 10 (31.3)
 Other 10 (4.2) 3 (9.2)
Perioperative antibiotics 200 (84.7) 26 (81.3) 0.860
Type of intubation    0.946
 Laryngeal mask airway 54 (22.9) 6 (18.8)
 Cuffed/uncuffed endotracheal tube 181 (76.7) 26 (81.2)
 Unknown 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0)
Method of operation    0.722
 Laparoscopic 72 (30.5) 5 (15.6)
 Laparoscopic-assisted 5 (2.1) 1 (3.1)
 Laparoscopic converted to open 6 (2.5) 2 (6.3)
 Open 145 (61.4) 24 (75.0)
 Endovascular 8 (3.5) 0 (0.0)
Bowel resection 61 (25.8) 13 (17.6) 0.079
Nasogastric tube 6 (2.5) 3 (9.4) 0.011
Duration of surgery (minutes, IQR) 100 (55–170) 212 (182–294) <0.001
Elective critical care admission 33 (14.0) 19 (59.4) <0.001
Analgesia use in the first 24 h    <0.001
 Epidural 26 (11.0) 14 (43.8)
 Patient controlled analgesia 40 (16.9) 10 (31.3)
 Wound catheter 2 (0.1) 0 (0.0)
 Oral analgesia only 166 (70.3) 7 (21.8)
 Unknown 2 (0.1) 1 (3.1)
Change in analgesia strategy in the first 24 h 148 (62.7) 23 (71.9) 0.014
Incentive spirometer 1 (0.4) 2 (6.3) <0.001