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Table 1 General demographics

From: Postoperative pulmonary complications following major elective abdominal surgery: a cohort study

n 268
Age (years, IQR) 66 (53–75)
Male 166 (61.9)
Body mass index (kilograms/metres2, IQR) 27.3 (24.0–31.2)
American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system
 1 32 (11.9)
 2 112 (41.8)
 3 71 (26.5)
 4 7 (2.6)
 Unknown 46 (17.2)
Current smoker 42 (15.7)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 30 (11.2)
Previous cerebrovascular accident 23 (8.6)
Urea (milligrams per decilitre, IQR) 5.4 (4.5–7.0)
Proton pump inhibitor 89 (33.2)
Steroids 16 (6.0)
Cancer operation 83 (31.0)
Type of operation
 Gastric 28 (10.4)
 Hepatobiliary/pancreatic 19 (7.1)
 Small bowel 13 (4.9)
 Colorectal 76 (28.4)
 Urological 57 (21.3)
 Vascular 62 (23.1)
 Other 13 (4.9)
Perioperative antibiotics 226 (84.3)
Type of intubation
 Laryngeal mask airway 60 (22.4)
 Cuffed/uncuffed endotracheal tube 207 (77.2)
 Unknown 1 (0.4)
Method of operation
 Laparoscopic 77 (28.7)
 Laparoscopic-assisted 6 (2.2)
 Laparoscopic converted to open 8 (3.0)
 Open 169 (63.1)
 Endovascular 8 (3.0)
Bowel resection 74 (27.6)
Nasogastric tube 9 (3.4)
Duration of surgery (minutes, IQR) 145 (87–210)
Elective critical care admission 52 (19.4)
Analgesia use in the first 24 h
 Epidural 40 (14.9)
 Patient controlled analgesia 50 (18.7)
 Wound catheter 2 (0.7)
 Oral analgesia only 173 (64.6)
 Unknown 3 (1.1)
Change in analgesia strategy in the first 24 h 171 (63.8)
Incentive spirometer 3 (1.1)