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Table 4 Hospital costs (£), quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and incremental net benefit up to 6 months and over patients’ lifetime for trial participants

From: Cost-effectiveness of a cardiac output-guided haemodynamic therapy algorithm in high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery

  Peri-operative cardiac output-guided haemodynamic therapy Usual care Incremental effect
(n = 368) (n = 365)
Up to 6 months    
Costs (£) 8574 (6304) 8974 (7217) −404 (−1313 to 505)
QALY 0.37 (0.11) 0.36 (0.12) 0.01 (0.00 to 0.02)
Incremental net benefit    580 (−378 to 1538)
Lifetime    
Costs (£) 8574 (6304) 8974 (7217) −404 (−1313 to 504)
QALY 7.59 (3.34) 7.10 (3.60) 0.19 (−0.17 to 0.54)
Incremental net benefit    4168 (−3063 to 11,398)
  1. Data presented as mean (SD) and mean (95 % confidence intervals)