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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Potential return on investment for implementation of perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy in major surgery: a nationwide database study

  All With complications Without complications
n = 204,680 n = 76,807 n = 127,873
Age (years) 64.8 ± 17.2 68.8 ± 16.0 62.4 ± 17.4
Gender (% female) 58.8 58.4 59.0
Elective surgery (%) 54.8 45.2 60.5
ICU admission (%) 22.4 36.2 14.1
Mortality (%) 1.9 4.6 0.2
Myocardial infarction (%) 6.2 8.8 4.6
Congestive heart failure (%) 7.5 12.3 4.6
Peripheral vascular disease (%) 7.3 9.0 6.2
Cerebrovascular disease (%) 2.0 3.2 1.4
Hemiplegia or paraplegia (%) 0.4 0.7 0.2
Dementia (%) 0.8 1.1 0.5
Chronic pulmonary disease (%) 19.3 23.8 16.6
Rheumatologic disease (%) 2.6 3.0 2.3
Peptic ulcer disease (%) 1.3 1.9 0.9
Mild liver disease (%) 1.0 1.3 0.8
Moderate or severe liver disease (%) 0.4 0.6 0.2
Diabetes (%) 19.9 21.1 19.2
Diabetes with complications (%) 2.2 2.8 1.9
Renal disease (%) 9.3 14.1 6.3
Any malignancy (%) 22.1 24.1 20.8
Metastatic solid tumor (%) 6.6 7.7 6.0
AIDS (%) 0.1 0.1 0.1
Charlson Co-morbidity Index 1.8 ± 2.3 2.2 ± 2.5 1.5 ± 2.2
  1. All comparisons “with complications vs. without complications” were statistically significant with p < 0.0001, with the exception of gender (p = 0.0386) and AIDS (p = 0.2912)
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