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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients without/with cardiac output monitoring and with central venous catheter

From: Variation in haemodynamic monitoring for major surgery in European nations: secondary analysis of the EuSOS dataset

  All Without cardiac output monitoring With cardiac output monitoring p* With central venous catheter
Age     <0.01  
Mean (SD) 61.7 (16.5) 61.4 (16.6) 63.6 (15.2)   62.9 (15.0)
Gender     <0.01  
 Male 6290 (51.7 %) 5706 (90.7 %) 584 (9.3 %)   935 (14.9 %)
 Female 5878 (48.3 %) 5048 (85.9 %) 830 (14.1 %)   1407 (23.9 %)
Current smoker 2329 (19.3 %) 2041 (19.1 %) 288 (20.5 %) 0.20 527 (22.7 %)
ASA Score     <0.01  
 I and II 7400 (60.8 %) 6793 (91.4 %) 643 (8.6 %)   874 (11.8 %)
 III, IV and V 4736 (39.0 %) 3978 (84.0 %) 768 (16.2 %)   1463 (30.9 %)
Urgency of surgery     <0.01  
 Elective 9132 (75.1 %) 8142 (89.2 %) 990 (10.8 %)   1514 (16.6 %)
 Urgent 2161 (17.8 %) 1909 (88.3 %) 252 (11.7 %)   480 (22.2 %)
 Emergency 875 (7.2 %) 702 (80.2 %) 173 (19.8 %)   349 (39.9 %)
Surgical speciality     <0.01  
 Orthopaedic 3984 (32.8 %) 3800 (95.4 %) 184 (4.6 %)   175 (4.4 %)
 Breast 350 (2.9 %) 331 (94.6 %) 19 (5.4 %)   32 (9.2 %)
 Gynaecology 1051 (8.7 %) 1005 (95.6 %) 46 (4.4 %)   70 (6.7 %)
 Vascular 807 (6.7 %) 633 (78.4 %) 174 (21.6 %)   267 (33.3 %)
 Gastrointestinal 2717 (22.3 %) 2144 (78.9 %) 573 (21.1 %)   971 (35.7 %)
 Hepato-biliary 510 (4.2 %) 370 (72.6 %) 140 (27.5 %)   299 (58.6 %)
 Plastic or cutaneous 192 (1.6 %) 188 (97.9 %) 4 (2.1 %)   22 (11.5 %)
 Urology and kidney 1219 (10.0 %) 1073 (87.1 %) 146 (12.9 %)   266 (28.2 %)
 Head and neck 684 (5.6 %) 638 (93.3 %) 46 (6.7 %)   64 (9.4 %)
 Other 622 (5.1) 542 (87.1 %) 80 (12.9 %)   167 (26.9 %)
Co-morbid disorder      
 No co-morbid disorder 6679 (54.9 %) 6095 (91.2 %) 584 (8.7 %) <0.01 918 (13.7 %)
 Cirrhosis 186 (1.5 %) 126 (67.7 %) 60 (32.3 %) <0.01 97 (52.2 %)
 Congestive heart failure 646 (5.3 %) 519 (80.3 %) 127 (19.7 %) <0.01 196 (30.3 %)
 COPD 1590 (13.1 %) 1352 (85.0 %) 238 (15.0 %) <0.01 388 (24.4 %)
 Coronary artery disease 1999 (16.5 %) 1685 (84.3 %) 314 (15.7 %) <0.01 460 (23.1 %)
 NIDDM 1119 (9.2 %) 973 (87.0 %) 146 (13.1 %) 0.12 245 (21.9 %)
 Metastatic cancer 1014 (8.4 %) 815 (80.4 %) 199 (19.6 %) <0.01 421 (41.5 %)
 Stroke 719 (5.9 %) 601 (83.6 %) 118 (16.4 %) <0.01 172 (23.9 %)
Hospital statistics      
 Length of hospital stay (mean, SD) 8.9 (9.4) 8.5 (9.3) 12.4 (12.0) <0.01 15.0 (12.9)
 ICU admission 2534 (20.8 %) 1900 (17.7 %) 634 (44.8 %) <0.01 1445 (61.7 %)
 Mortality 667 (5.5 %) 535 (5.0 %) 142 (10.0 %) <0.01 287 (12.2 %)
Total 12 170 10,754 (88.4 %) 1416 (11.6 %)   2343 (19.3 %)
  1. Data presented as mean (SD) or n (%)
  2. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, ICU intensive care unit, NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. *p value describes comparison of the patient groups with and without cardiac output monitoring