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Table 4 Principles of hemodynamic monitoring (Vincent et al .) [133 ]

From: Perioperative fluid therapy: a statement from the international Fluid Optimization Group

Principle Rational
No hemodynamic monitoring technique can improve outcome by itself If the data are interpreted or applied incorrectly the resultant change in management will not improve patient outcome and may be deleterious
Monitoring requirements may vary over time Optimal monitoring system depend on the individual patient, the problem already present or potentially arising, and the devices and expertise available. Different monitoring techniques can sometimes be used to complement each other.
There are no optimal hemodynamic values or targets that are applicable to all patients Targets and alarms should thus be individualized and reassessed regularly
Any variable on its own provides just one piece of a large puzzle Variables should be combined and integrated
Continuous measurements of hemodynamic variables is preferable Real time information and trends are useful on the perioperative settings
  1. This table highlights a fundamental truth regarding hemodynamic monitoring and patient outcomes: Hemodynamic monitoring devices do not change patient outcomes unless coupled to treatments or treatment protocols which are known to improve outcome.