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Table 4 Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)

From: The length of stay in the post-anaesthesia care unit correlates with pain intensity, nausea and vomiting on arrival

   Nausea,n(%) Vomiting,n(%)
   On admittance Before discharge On admittance Before discharge
Gender Women 163 (3) 103 (2)* 15 (0.3) 0 (0)*
Men 73 (1)** 32 (1)* 6 (0.2) 0 (0)*
Age <40 years 38 (3) 17 (1)* 4 (0.4) 0 (0)*
40–80 years 134 (2)** 87 (1)* 16 (0.4) 0 (0)*
>80 years 64 (2)** (1)* 1 (0) 0 (0)
ASA classification ASA I 33 (2) 21 (1)* 2 (0) 0 (0)
ASA II 115 (2) 65 (1)* 15 (1) ** 0 (0)*
ASA III 88 (2) 48 (1)* 4 (0) 0 (0)
ASA IV 0 (0) 1 (1)* 0 (0)** 0 (0)
Surgical specialities General surgery 146 (2) 88 (1)* 13 (0) 0 (0)*
Cardiac surgery 12 (3) 3 (1)* 0 (0) 0 (0)
Orthopaedic surgery 18 (3) 5 (1)* 2 (1) 0 (0)*
Spine surgery 12 (2) 17 (3) 5 (1) 0 (0)*
Urology 24 (1)** 15 (1)* 0 (0) 0 (0)
Ophthalmology 11 (1)** 5 (0)* 0 (0) 0 (0)
ENT surgery 3 (2) 0 (0)* 0 (0) 0 (0)
Anaesthetic technique MAC 12 (3) 6 (1)* 0 (0) 0 (0)
Peripheral RA 1 (1) 0 (0)* 0 (0) 0 (0)
Central neuraxial RA 12 (2) 6 (1)* 1 (0) 0 (0)
General anaesthesia 178 (2) 104 (1)* 19 (0) 0 (0)*
Combined anaesthesia 33 (2) 19 (1)* 1 (0) 0 (0)
Duration of anaesthesia <60 min 6 (3) 3 (2)* 1 (1) 0 (0)
60–180 min 120 (4) 77 (1)* 7 (0) 0 (0)
>180 min 110 (3) 55 (1)* 13 (0) 0 (0)*
Intensity of nursing care PACU 164 (2) 101 (1)* 12 (0.1) 0 (0)*
IMC 69 (3)** 31 (1)* 9 (0.3) 0 (0)*
  1. ASA classification American Society of Anesthesiologists’ classification, ENT ear-nose-throat, IMC intermediate care (more complex intermediate care patients, NEMS >15), MAC monitored anaesthesia care, NRS numeric rating scale, PACU post-anaesthesia care unit (regular post-anaesthesia care unit patients NEMS ≤15), RA = regional anaesthesia.
  2. *p <0.05 (comparison admittance-discharge), **p <0.05 (gender: comparison with women; age: comparison with age <40 years; ASA classification: comparison with ASA I; surgical specialities: comparison with general surgery; anaesthetic technique: comparison with general anaesthesia; duration of anaesthesia: comparison with duration <60 min; intensity of nursing: comparison with PACU).