Traditional nine-panel plot. This format emanates from Wasserman and colleagues. This is one of several formats currently used but is by far the most common. There is a new format published recently from UCLA (Figure 3) and another one devised by Professor Whipp. The 9-panel format allows 15 variables to be plotted on 9 graphs. Note in Panel 7, the lines indicating vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and maximum ventilatory volume. This is useful in assessing respiratory function. Ve, minute volume, VO2 = oxygen uptake, HR = heart rate, VCO2 = carbon dioxide output, Vt, tidal volume, RER = respiratory exchange ratio, PETO2 = partial pressure end-tidal oxygen, PETCO2 = partial pressure end-tidal carbon dioxide. Data from author’s laboratory.