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Table 3 Pros and cons of (unbalanced) crystalloid fluids leading to under- or over-resuscitation in clinical practice

From: Dose and type of crystalloid fluid therapy in adult hospitalized patients

Too little Too much
Tissue hypoxygenation Tissue edema and hypoxygenation
Risk for acute kidney injury Compartment syndromes and renal dysfunction
Lactate and unmeasured anion acidosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and risk forhypernatremia
Gastrointestinal disturbances Anastomotic leakage; diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disturbances
  Pulmonary edema; hepatic congestion and injury
  Prolonged mechanical ventilation