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Table 1 Characteristics and quality of studies included

From: What evidence is there for intraoperative predictors of perioperative cardiac outcomes? A systematic review

Author Study design Nature of surgery Study outcomes Follow-up length Follow-up completeness (n/N) Outcome assessment Preoperative cardiac risk factors evaluated
Charlson [14] Observational: prospective Cholecystectomy, vascular Cardiac death, MI, myocardial ischemia 7 days postop or death or discharge 254/278 (91.4%) Blinded CAD, cardiomegaly (Only hypertensive and diabetic patients enrolled)
Ashton [23] Observational: prospective and retrospective Non-cardiac MI Hospital discharge 835/835 (100%) Unblinded Age, CAD, CF, cerebrovascular disease, chronic beta-blockade, diabetes, hypertension
Frank [15] Prospective: randomized, single blind Abdominal, thoracic, vascular Cardiac arrest, MI, unstable angina 24 h postop 270/300 (90%) Blinded Age, ASA class, CAD, beta-blockade, diabetes, hypertension
Sprung [16] Observational: retrospective Vascular Cardiac death, MI Hospital discharge 6,948/6,948 (100%) Unblinded CAD, CF, beta-blockade, valvular heart disease
Ali [17] Prospective: randomized, single blind Vascular MI, myocardial injury 7 days postop 82/82 (100%) Blinded Age, CAD, hypertension, NYHA functional capacity, POSSUM score
Davenport [36] Observational: retrospective General, vascular Cardiac arrest, MI 30 days postop 182,900/183,069 (99.9%) Unblinded Age, ASA class, CF, CVA, gender, renal dysfunction
Bursi [18] Observational: retrospective Vascular Death, MI 30 days postop 359/359 (100%) Blinded Age, CAD, diabetes, gender, hypertension, renal dysfunction, smoking history
Matyal [25] Observational: prospective Vascular MI, CF, significant arrhythmia, prolonged intubation, renal failure, death 30 days postop 325/325 (100%) Unblinded Age, renal dysfunction
Oscarsson [19] Observational: prospective Non-cardiac Cardiac death, MI Hospital discharge 186/211 (88%) Unblinded Age, CF, diabetes, diuretics, nitrates
Winkel [20] Observational: retrospective Vascular Cardiac death, MI, unstable angina 12-48 h postop & 30 days to 3 months postop 317/317 (100%) Unblinded Cardiac risk classification, gender, hypertension
D’Ayala [21] Observational: retrospective Lower limb amputations MI, postop cardiac dysrhythmia 30 days postop 300/300 (100%) Unblinded CAD, diabetes, hypertension, renal dysfunction
Martin [24] Observational: retrospective Vascular Death, MI Hospital discharge 403,974/403,974 (100%) Unblinded Age, CF, diabetes, renal dysfunction
Devereaux [22] Prospective: randomized, controlled, blinded Non-cardiac Death, MI Hospital discharge 8,331/8,351 (99.7%) Unblinded Age, CF, heart rate, renal dysfunction, statin therapy
Rodseth [27] Prospective: observational Vascular Death, troponin elevation 30 days postop 149/149 Unblinded Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptides
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, CAD Coronary artery disease, CF Cardiac failure, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, MI Myocardial infarction, NYHA New York Heart Association.