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Table 3 Summary of causes of AKI defined etiologically

From: Perioperative acute kidney injury

Pre-renal Intrinsic renal disease Post-renal
Hypovolemia, for example, hemorrhage, diarrhea, vomiting Ischemia from prolonged hypoperfusion Obstructive causes, for example, prostatic hypertrophy, renal stones, urethral strictures, pelvic masses
Hypotension, for example, sepsis Glomerular disease, for example, glomerulonephritis, TTP, DIC
Low cardiac output state, for example, CCF, cardiac tamponade Nephrotoxins, for example, aminoglycosides, NSAIDs, radiological contrast
Impaired renal autoregulation, for example, renal artery stenosis, ACEi/ARB/NSAIDs Metabolic abnormalities, for example, hypercalcemia
Rhabdomyolysis, for example, crush injuries, burns
  1. ACEi, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin recreptor blocker; CCF, congestive cardiac failure; DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; TTP, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.